Response to Intervention
Assisting Students Struggling with Mathematics: Response to Intervention (RtI) for Elementary and Middle Schools
The eight recommendations in this guide are designed to help teachers, principals, and administrators use Response to Intervention for the early detection, prevention, and support of students struggling with mathematics.
Authors: Russell Gersten, Sybilla Beckmann, Benjamin Clarke, Anne Foegen, Laurel Marsh, Jon R. Star, and
Bradley Witzel
Publication Date: 2009
Publisher: Institute of Education Sciences

Considering Tier 3 Within a Response-to-Intervention Model
This article provides a general overview of special considerations pertaining to the provision of Tier 3 prevention and intervention efforts and specifically describes a self-questioning process to guide decision making at Tier 3. 
Author: Ruth A. Ervin
Publisher: National Center for Learning Disabilities

Core Intervention Components: Identifying and Operationalizing What Makes Programs Work
This brief focuses on the importance of identifying, operationalizing, and implementing the “core components” of evidence-based and evidence-informed interventions that likely are critical to producing positive outcomes.
Authors: Karen Blase and Dean Fixsen
Publication Date: February 2013
Publisher: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Data-Based Individualization: A Framework for Intensive Intervention
This document introduces and describes the data-based individualization (DBI) process, a framework for addressing the needs of students who require intensive intervention in academics and/or behavior. 
Publication Date: March 2013
Publisher: National Center on Intensive Intervention

Decision Making Model
This graphic illustrates the decision making process and offers steps, decision making questions, and guiding questions.
Publisher: Arizona Department of Education

Ensuring Fidelity of Assessment and Data Entry Procedures
This resource reviews three data collection and entry challenges and strategies to ensure data about risk status and responsiveness accurately represent student performance and minimize measurement errors.
Publisher: American Institutes for Research and IDEAs That Work

How to Develop an Effective Tier 2 System
This article discusses the challenges and a process for implementation, with a particular focus on developing a Tier 2 infrastructure.
Author: Evelyn Johnson
Publisher: RTI Action Network

These tools and resources support MTSS teams in planning for success, implementation, and sustaining and expanding implementation.
Publisher: Center on Multi-Tiered Systems of Support at the American Institutes for Research

Making Decisions About Adequate Progress in Tier 2
This article discusses the identification of students not progressing adequately in Tier 2 and making informed decisions about the nature of researched methods and measures for Tier 3 identification.
Authors: Douglas D. Dexter and Charles Hughes
Publisher: National Center for Learning Disabilities

Making Sense of Data-Driven Decision Making in Education
This occasional paper seeks to clarify the ways in which multiple types of data are being used in schools and districts by synthesizing findings from recent research conducted by the RAND Corporation.
Authors: Julie A. Marsh, John F. Pane, and Laura S. Hamilton
Publication Date: 2006
Publisher: RAND Corporation

MTSS for All: Including Students with the Most Significant Cognitive Disabilities
This brief explains MTSS and provides suggestions to include students with the most significant cognitive disabilities so that MTSS provides a whole school and whole district approach to be implemented by educators. 
Authors: Martha L. Thurlow, Gail Ghere, Sheryl S. Lazarus, and Kristin K. Liu
Publication Date: January 2020
Publishers: National Center on Educational Outcomes (NCEO) and TIES Center

MTSS Implementation Rubric
This rubric helps you determine the level of implementation of MTSS in the areas of leadership, assessment, curriculum, instruction, evidenced-based decision making, and integration and sustainability.
Publisher: Arizona Department of Education

MTSS Implementation Scoring Summary
This template is provided to record your rubric scores and identify the levels of implementation with evidence that include not implementing, emerging understandings, transitioning, innovating and sustaining.
Publisher: Arizona Department of Education

MTSS Introduction and Scoring Guide
This document explains the purpose of Arizona’s MTSS Implementation Rubric as self-assessment, implementation monitoring, and informing planning> Instructions for using the rubric are included.
Publisher: Arizona Department of Education

New Roles in Response to Intervention: Creating Success for Schools and Children
The purpose of this document is to identify the key roles that school personnel and parents can undertake when an LEA or school decides to adopt an RTI strategy. A discussion of new roles for speech-language pathologists is included.
Publication Date: November 2006
Publisher: National Association of School Psychologists

Preventing Disproportionate Representation: Culturally and Linguistically Responsive Prereferral Interventions
This brief highlights four key elements of culturally- and linguistically-responsive prereferral intervention that must be included in the RTI process for culturally and linguistically diverse students. 
Authors: Shernaz B. García and Alba A. Ortiz
Publication Date: 2006
Publisher: National Center for Culturally Responsive Educational Systems

Problem Analysis Within an RTI Framework at a Secondary School
This article provides an overview of the process of using data to determine appropriate interventions and focuses on the need to have effective Tier 2 interventions in place before effective Tier 3 interventions can occur.
Authors: Matthew K. Burns, Rebecca Sarlo, and Hollie Pettersson
Publisher: National Center for Learning Disabilities

Progress Monitoring Within a Multi-Level Prevention System
This article provides a quick overview of progress monitoring and describes how progress monitoring is used within a multi-level prevention system.
Author: Lynn S. Fuchs
Publisher: National Center for Learning Disabilities

Response to Intervention in Secondary Schools: Is It on Your Radar Screen?
The purpose of this article is to provide an orientation to RTI in secondary settings, rather than a detailed description of RTI.
Author: Barbara J. Ehren
Publisher: National Center for Learning Disabilities

Response to Intervention with Older Students with Reading Difficulties
This report describes an approach to enhanced literacy instruction for middle school students that includes the essential components of any RTI model: universal screening, progress monitoring, and multi-tiered instructional service delivery.
Authors: Sharon Vaughn, Jack M. Fletcher, David J. Francis, Carolyn A. Denton, Jeanne Wanzek, Jade Wexler, Paul T. Cirino, Amy E. Barth, and Melissa A. Romain
Publication Date: 2008
Publisher: National Center for Biotechnology Information

RTI Implementation Processes for Middle Schools 
This brief gives practitioners guidance based on the implementation activities of middle school practitioners and recognizes that secondary schools must consider many unique features when implementing RTI (e.g., student class schedules, grading requirements, course credits, and curricular focus). 
National Center on Response to Intervention
Publication Date: June 2011
Publisher: Office of Special Education Programs, U.S. Department of Education

RTI-Based SLD Identification Toolkit
This Toolkit provides a clear vision of best practice related to an RTI-based SLD Identification process. With this vision, school systems can develop structures to ensure that the identification process for specific learning disabilities facilitates decision making about instructional decisions to improve outcomes for students. 
Authors: Candace Cortiella, Sue Gamm, Claudia Rinaldi, and Steve Goodman
Publication Date: 2014
Publisher: RTI Action Network

Screening for Reading Problems in Grades 4 Through 12
This article provides information about measures that can be used to identify students at risk for reading problems in Grades 4–12. Included is information regarding reading instruction at the secondary level and the characteristics of students who struggle with reading.
Authors: Evelyn S. Johnson, Juli Pool, and Deborah R. Carter
Publisher: National Center for Learning Disabilities

Smart RTI: A Next-Generation Approach to Multilevel Prevention
This article highlights next-generation RTI practices, including summarizing the three aspects of Smart RTI and emphasizing the importance and relevance of tertiary prevention in all types of schools.
Authors: Douglas Fuchs, Lynn S. Fuchs, Donald L. Compton 
Publication Date: April 2012
Publisher: National Institutes of Health

Standards-Relevant Instruction & Multi-Tiered Systems of Support (MTSS) or Response to Intervention
These documents illustrate how college- and career-ready standards can be addressed across levels of a multi-tiered system of support (MTSS) or response to intervention framework in reading and mathematics. They provide examples of how to apply standards relevant instruction across core instruction, secondary intervention, intensive intervention and for to support students with significant cognitive challenges.
Publisher: National Center on Intensive Intervention at American Institutes for Research

The ABCs of RTI in Middle School: A Guide for Parents
This document will help parents and educators understand the essential components of Response to Intervention (RTI) and how the RTI framework can be used to help students succeed in middle school. 
Publication Date: January 2013
Publisher: National Center on Response to Intervention

The RTI Data Analysis Teaming Process
This article discusses the critical importance of data team meetings with a problem solving process to create curricular improvements, design interventions, and decide which students will benefit from additional tiered instruction.
Authors: Joseph F. Kovaleski, Megan Roble, and Michelle Agne
Publisher: National Center for Learning Disabilities

Tools to Support Intensive Intervention Data Meetings
These tools were designed for use within the data-based individualization (DBI) process, but they can be adapted and expanded to support data meetings across the tiers of a multi-tiered system of support or to support individualized education program (IEP) teams.
Publisher: American Institutes for Research and IDEAs That Work

Using Office Discipline Referrals as a Behavioral Screener: Considerations From NCII and the Center on PBIS
Recommendations are given for using office discipline referral data as part of a gated screening process within clear schoolwide behavioral expectations, consistent and operationalized definitions for behavioral infractions, and systematic procedures for collecting and analyzing discipline data.
Publication Date: October 2020
Publisher: National Center on Intensive Intervention and The Center on Positive Behavioral Intervention and Supports

Using Student Achievement Data to Support Instructional Decision Making
This guide offers recommendations to help educators effectively use data to monitor students’ academic progress and evaluate instructional practices. It also recommends teaching students how to use their own data to set learning goals.
Authors: Laura Hamilton, Richard Halverson, Sharnell S. Jackson, Ellen Mandinach,Jonathan A. Supovitz, and Jeffrey C. Wayman
Publication Date: September 2009
Publisher: Institute of Education Sciences

What’s Your Plan? Accurate Decision Making within a Multi-Tier System of Supports: Critical Areas in Tier 1
This article addresses the complexity of MTSS decision making and identifies critical decision points within Tier 1 (universal or core instruction for all students) at the building level. Additional tools and resources are offered.
Author: Terri Metcalfe
Publisher: RTI Action Network

What’s Your Plan? Accurate Decision Making within a Multi-Tier System of Supports: Critical Areas in Tier 2
This article addresses the complexity of the MTSS process and identifies decision points within critical areas of Tier 2 at the building level. Additional tools and resources are offered to further assist in Tier 2 decisions.
Author: Terri Metcalfe
Publisher: RTI Action Network