Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

A Research Synthesis of the Associations Between Socioeconomic Background, Inequality, School Climate, and Academic Achievement
This research review examines how supportive school and classroom climates can positively influence the academic outcomes of students and reduce academic achievement gaps between students and schools of different socioeconomic status backgrounds.
Authors: Ruth Berkowitz, Hadass Moore, Ron Avi Astor, and Rami Benbenishty
Publication Date: November 2016
Publisher: SAGE Journals

Bullying Prevention in Positive Behavior Support: Expect Respect
The purpose of this handbook is to improve the success of schools as effective learning environments by establishing expectations for common respect. It includes procedures that have been demonstrated to be practical and effective.
Authors: Brianna C. Stiller, Rhonda N.T. Nese, Anne K. Tomlanovich, Robert H. Horner, and Scott W. Ross
Publication Date: February 2013
Publisher: University of Oregon

Climate Change: Providing Equitable Access to a Rigorous and Engaging Curriculum
This paper discusses the relationship between rigorous and engaging curriculum and a positive school climate, access to a rigorous and engaging curriculum and accelerated courses for all students, and promising approaches to increasing access to a rigorous and engaging curriculum and accelerated courses.
Publication Date: November 2013
Publisher: Alliance for Excellent Education

Connecting Schoolwide SEL with Other School-Based Frameworks
This guide describes a learning environment that infuses social emotional learning (SEL) into all aspects of instruction and promotes equitable outcomes for all students when fully implemented.
Publication Date: October 2018
Publisher: Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning

Data-Based Individualization: A Framework for Intensive Intervention
This document introduces and describes the data-based individualization (DBI) process, a framework for addressing the needs of students who require intensive intervention in academics and/or behavior, and the continuous interplay between assessment and intervention.
Publication Date: March 2013
Publisher: Office of Special Education Programs, U.S. Department of Education

ESSentials LogoESSentials: PBIS Universal Tier ~ Middle School
This resource discusses using video as a tool to support implementation and sustainability of universal practices of PBIS. Included is a video example from Arizona’s Mohave Middle School.
Publication Date: June 2015
Publisher: Arizona Department of Education, Exceptional Student Services

If Discipline Referral Rates for the School as a Whole Are Reduced, Will Rates for Students with Disabilities Also Be Reduced?
This study indicates a national sample of 85 schools reducing Office Discipline Referral (ODRs) rates by 10% or more for major offences for the school as a whole including reduced discipline referrals for students in special education.
Authors: Tary Tobin, Rob Horner, Claudia Vincent, and Jessica Swain-Bradway
Publication Date: November 2012
Publisher: OSEP Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

Is School-Wide Positive Behavior Support an Evidence-Based Practice?
This document lays out the current evidence assessing SWPBS and the considerations that may be relevant for state, district and national decision-makers.
Authors: Robert H. Horner, George Sugai, and Timothy Lewis
Publication Date: April 2015
Publisher: OSEP Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

Out-of-School Suspension for Minor Misbehavior
This evaluation brief examines the practice of using out-of-school suspension as a consequence for behavior coded as “minor” on office discipline referral forms.
Authors: Bert M. Eliason, Robert H. Horner, and Seth L. May
Publication Date: January 2013
Publisher: Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports
This website gives schools capacity-building information and resources for identifying, adapting, and sustaining effective school-wide positive disciplinary practices. 
Publisher: OSEP Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

Supporting and Responding to Behavior: Evidence-Based Classroom Strategies for Teachers
This document summarizes evidence-based, positive, proactive, and responsive classroom behavior intervention and support strategies for teachers to help capitalize on instruction time and decrease disruptions.
Authors: Brandi Simonsen, Jennifer Freeman, Steve Goodman, Barbara Mitchell, Jessica Swain-Bradway, Brigid Flannery, George Sugai, Heather George, and Bob Putman
Publication Date: 2015
Publisher: U.S. Office of Special Education Programs

Teaching Social-Emotional Competencies within a PBIS Framework
The purpose of this brief is to describe how school personnel can teach social-emotional competencies within a PBIS framework to support systematic, schoolwide implementation through one system, rather than trying to improve student outcomes through separate, competing initiatives.
Authors: Susan Barrett, Lucille Eber, Kent McIntosh, Kelly Perales, and Natalie Romer
Publication Date: April 2018
Publisher: Center on PBIS, University of Oregon

Using Office Discipline Referrals as a Behavioral Screener: Considerations From NCII and the Center on PBIS
Recommendations are given for using office discipline referral data as part of a gated screening process within clear schoolwide behavioral expectations, consistent and operationalized definitions for behavioral infractions, and systematic procedures for collecting and analyzing discipline data.
Publication Date: October 2020
Publisher: National Center on Intensive Intervention and The Center on Positive Behavioral Intervention and Supports

Why Prioritize Behavior Support?
This brief describes why it's critical to continue to prioritize behavior support in addition to academic, social, and emotional supports. With effective behavior support implemented within a PBIS framework, rigorous research has demonstrated that students and educators experience positive outcomes.
Publication Date: March 2021
Publisher: Center on PBIS, University of Oregon