Response to Intervention

Considering Tier 3 Within a Response-to-Intervention Model
This article provides a general overview of special considerations pertaining to the provision of Tier 3 prevention and intervention efforts and specifically describes a self-questioning process to guide decision making at Tier 3. 
Author: Ruth A. Ervin
Publisher: National Center for Learning Disabilities

Core Intervention Components: Identifying and Operationalizing What Makes Programs Work
This brief focuses on the importance of identifying, operationalizing, and implementing the “core components” of evidence-based and evidence-informed interventions that likely are critical to producing positive outcomes.
Authors: Karen Blase and Dean Fixsen
Publication Date: February 2013
Publisher: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Data-Based Individualization: A Framework for Intensive Intervention
This document introduces and describes the data-based individualization (DBI) process, a framework for addressing the needs of students who require intensive intervention in academics and/or behavior. 
Publication Date: March 2013
Publisher: National Center on Intensive Intervention

Decision Making Model
This graphic illustrates the decision making process and offers steps, decision making questions, and guiding questions.
Publisher: Arizona Department of Education

Developing a Plan 
The focus of this article is on the development of a building-level plan for implementation of a Response-to-Intervention (RTI) model. 
Author: George Batsche 
Publisher: RTI Action Network

Documenting Tier 1/Classroom Interventions 
This article details the components of Tier 1 intervention plans and includes a teacher-friendly form that includes the essential RTI elements of an effective intervention plan. 
Publisher: Intervention Central 

Ensuring Fidelity of Assessment and Data Entry Procedures
This resource reviews three data collection and entry challenges and strategies to ensure data about risk status and responsiveness accurately represent student performance and minimize measurement errors.
Publisher: American Institutes for Research and IDEAs That Work

Evaluating and Refining Implementation 
This article describes how implementation evaluation provides evidence of how well the model is being implemented, informs the professional development process, and provides feedback on how well the process is being implemented. 
Author: George Batsche 
Publisher: RTI Action Network

How to Develop an Effective Tier 2 System
This article discusses the challenges and a process for implementation, with a particular focus on developing a Tier 2 infrastructure.
Author: Evelyn Johnson
Publisher: RTI Action Network

Implement Your Plan 
This article describes a typical three year implementation plan. 
Author: George Batsche 
Publisher: RTI Action Network 

These tools and resources support MTSS teams in planning for success, implementation, and sustaining and expanding implementation.
Publisher: Center on Multi-Tiered Systems of Support at the American Institutes for Research

Implementing RTI in a High School: A Case Study 
This case study chronicles the efforts of a small high school over a 2-year period as it implemented an RTI program. Results showed improved achievement, attendance, and a decrease in special education referrals. 
Authors: Douglas Fisher and Nancy Frey 
Publication Date: Updated February 2013 
Publisher: Hammill Institute on Disabilities and Sage Publications

Making Decisions About Adequate Progress in Tier 2
This article discusses the identification of students not progressing adequately in Tier 2 and making informed decisions about the nature of researched methods and measures for Tier 3 identification.
Authors: Douglas D. Dexter and Charles Hughes
Publisher: National Center for Learning Disabilities

Meeting the Needs of Significantly Struggling Learners in High School: A Look at Approaches to Tiered Intervention
This brief explores implications of applying RTI constructs and monitoring instruction and learning for all students at the high school level. 
Author: Helen Duffy 
Publication Date: May 2011 
Publisher: National High School Level

MTSS for All: Including Students with the Most Significant Cognitive Disabilities
This brief explains MTSS and provides suggestions to include students with the most significant cognitive disabilities so that MTSS provides a whole school and whole district approach to be implemented by educators. 
Authors: Martha L. Thurlow, Gail Ghere, Sheryl S. Lazarus, and Kristin K. Liu
Publication Date: January 2020
Publishers: National Center on Educational Outcomes (NCEO) and TIES Center

MTSS Implementation Rubric
This rubric helps you determine the level of implementation of MTSS in the areas of leadership, assessment, curriculum, instruction, evidenced-based decision making, and integration and sustainability.
Publisher: Arizona Department of Education

MTSS Implementation Scoring Summary
This template is provided to record your rubric scores and identify the levels of implementation with evidence that include not implementing, emerging understandings, transitioning, innovating and sustaining.
Publisher: Arizona Department of Education

MTSS Introduction and Scoring Guide
This document explains the purpose of Arizona’s MTSS Implementation Rubric as self-assessment, implementation monitoring, and informing planning> Instructions for using the rubric are included.
Publisher: Arizona Department of Education

Myths About Response to Intervention (RTI) Implementation 
This article answers eleven RTI myths related to special education. 
Author: Bill East 
Publisher: RTI Action Network 

New Roles in Response to Intervention: Creating Success for Schools and Children
The purpose of this document is to identify the key roles that school personnel and parents can undertake when an LEA or school decides to adopt an RTI strategy. A discussion of new roles for speech-language pathologists is included.
Publication Date: November 2006
Publisher: National Association of School Psychologists

Preventing Disproportionate Representation: Culturally and Linguistically Responsive Prereferral Interventions
This brief highlights four key elements of culturally- and linguistically-responsive prereferral intervention that must be included in the RTI process for culturally and linguistically diverse students. 
Authors: Shernaz B. García and Alba A. Ortiz
Publication Date: 2006
Publisher: National Center for Culturally Responsive Educational Systems

Problem Analysis Within an RTI Framework at a Secondary School
This article provides an overview of the process of using data to determine appropriate interventions and focuses on the need to have effective Tier 2 interventions in place before effective Tier 3 interventions can occur.
Authors: Matthew K. Burns, Rebecca Sarlo, and Hollie Pettersson
Publisher: National Center for Learning Disabilities

Progress Monitoring Within a Multi-Level Prevention System
This article provides a quick overview of progress monitoring and describes how progress monitoring is used within a multi-level prevention system.
Author: Lynn S. Fuchs
Publisher: National Center for Learning Disabilities

Progress Monitoring Within a Response-to-Intervention Model 
This article discusses progress monitoring within a Response-to-Intervention (RTI) model and assists the reader in making informed decisions when selecting and interpreting progress-monitoring measures. 
Authors: Douglas D. Dexter and Charles Hughes 
Publisher: RTI Action Network 

Response to Intervention and High School Renewal
The AZRTI framework demonstrates how high school students lagging behind their peers can grow with high quality, rigorous, and tiered instruction. 
Publisher: Arizona Department of Education 

Response to Intervention in Secondary Schools: Is It on Your Radar Screen?
The purpose of this article is to provide an orientation to RTI in secondary settings, rather than a detailed description of RTI.
Author: Barbara J. Ehren
Publisher: National Center for Learning Disabilities

Response to Intervention with Older Students with Reading Difficulties
This report describes an approach to enhanced literacy instruction for middle school students that includes the essential components of any RTI model: universal screening, progress monitoring, and multi-tiered instructional service delivery.
Authors: Sharon Vaughn, Jack M. Fletcher, David J. Francis, Carolyn A. Denton, Jeanne Wanzek, Jade Wexler, Paul T. Cirino, Amy E. Barth, and Melissa A. Romain
Publication Date: 2008
Publisher: National Center for Biotechnology Information

RTI-Based SLD Identification Toolkit
This Toolkit provides a clear vision of best practice related to an RTI-based SLD Identification process. With this vision, school systems can develop structures to ensure that the identification process for specific learning disabilities facilitates decision making about instructional decisions to improve outcomes for students. 
Authors: Candace Cortiella, Sue Gamm, Claudia Rinaldi, and Steve Goodman
Publication Date: 2014
Publisher: RTI Action Network

Screening for Reading Problems in Grades 4 Through 12
This article provides information about measures that can be used to identify students at risk for reading problems in Grades 4–12. Included is information regarding reading instruction at the secondary level and the characteristics of students who struggle with reading.
Authors: Evelyn S. Johnson, Juli Pool, and Deborah R. Carter
Publisher: National Center for Learning Disabilities

Smart RTI: A Next-Generation Approach to Multilevel Prevention
This article highlights next-generation RTI practices, including summarizing the three aspects of Smart RTI and emphasizing the importance and relevance of tertiary prevention in all types of schools.
Authors: Douglas Fuchs, Lynn S. Fuchs, Donald L. Compton 
Publication Date: April 2012
Publisher: National Institutes of Health

Social Emotional Learning in High School: How Three Urban High Schools Engage, Educate, and Empower Youth
This research brief shows taking a social emotional approach to education will be most effective when these strategies are developmentally informed, practiced through both whole school implementation and direct instruction, and grounded in the needs of diverse students.
Authors: MarYam G. Hamedani and Linda Darling-Hammond
Publication Date: March 2015
Publisher: Stanford Center for Opportunity Policy in Education

Standards-Relevant Instruction & Multi-Tiered Systems of Support (MTSS) or Response to Intervention
These documents illustrate how college- and career-ready standards can be addressed across levels of a multi-tiered system of support (MTSS) or response to intervention framework in reading and mathematics. They provide examples of how to apply standards relevant instruction across core instruction, secondary intervention, intensive intervention and for to support students with significant cognitive challenges.
Publisher: National Center on Intensive Intervention at American Institutes for Research

The RTI Data Analysis Teaming Process
This article discusses the critical importance of data team meetings with a problem solving process to create curricular improvements, design interventions, and decide which students will benefit from additional tiered instruction.
Authors: Joseph F. Kovaleski, Megan Roble, and Michelle Agne
Publisher: National Center for Learning Disabilities

Tiered Instruction and Intervention in a Response-to-Intervention Model
This article details the process of implementing instruction and intervention that occurs as a function of the outcomes of the assessments. 
Author: Edward S. Shapiro 
Publisher: RTI Action Network 

Tiered Interventions in High Schools: Using Preliminary ‘Lessons Learned’ to Guide Ongoing Discussion
This report describes the RTI framework, illustrates how the essential components are implemented at eight schools, and provides a presentation and guide to facilitate discussions about high school tiered interventions with school staff.
Publisher: Nation Center on Response to Intervention

Tools to Support Intensive Intervention Data Meetings
These tools were designed for use within the data-based individualization (DBI) process, but they can be adapted and expanded to support data meetings across the tiers of a multi-tiered system of support or to support individualized education program (IEP) teams.
Publisher: American Institutes for Research and IDEAs That Work

Uncharted Territory: Using Tiered Intervention to Improve High School Performance 
This article provides an overview of how educators might implement RTI at the high school level, identifies some challenges unique to the secondary setting, and outlines potential solutions to some of those challenges. 
Publisher: SEDL

Using Student Achievement Data to Support Instructional Decision Making
This guide offers recommendations to help educators effectively use data to monitor students’ academic progress and evaluate instructional practices. It also recommends teaching students how to use their own data to set learning goals.
Authors: Laura Hamilton, Richard Halverson, Sharnell S. Jackson, Ellen Mandinach,Jonathan A. Supovitz, and Jeffrey C. Wayman
Publication Date: September 2009
Publisher: Institute of Education Sciences

What’s Your Plan? Accurate Decision Making within a Multi-Tier System of Supports: Critical Areas in Tier 1
This article addresses the complexity of MTSS decision making and identifies critical decision points within Tier 1 (universal or core instruction for all students) at the building level. Additional tools and resources are offered.
Author: Terri Metcalfe
Publisher: RTI Action Network

What’s Your Plan? Accurate Decision Making within a Multi-Tier System of Supports: Critical Areas in Tier 2
This article addresses the complexity of the MTSS process and identifies decision points within critical areas of Tier 2 at the building level. Additional tools and resources are offered to further assist in Tier 2 decisions.
Author: Terri Metcalfe
Publisher: RTI Action Network