Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

10 Years of Social and Emotional Learning in U.S. School Districts Elements for Long-Term Sustainability of SEL
This report outlines six elements within a district that can help bring all stakeholders to the table to contribute to the long-term sustainability of Social and Emotional Learning. Each element is drawn from experience of partnering with the Collaborating Districts Initiative and informed by a review of their implementation reports and relevant research. 
Publication Date: November 2021
Publisher: CASEL

A Focus on Implementation of Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) in High Schools: Associations With Bullying and Other Indicators of School Disorder
This study examines the implementation of an MTSS framework in high schools. The MTSS model tested in this study included training in the multitiered PBIS model and access to data on school climate, which were used to guide the selection and implementation of one or more evidence-based practices, with ongoing support from a coach.
Authors: Catherine P. Bradshaw, Elise T. Pas, Katrina J. Debnam, and Sarah Lindstrom Johnson
Publication Date: September 2015
Publisher: School Psychology Review

A Research Synthesis of the Associations Between Socioeconomic Background, Inequality, School Climate, and Academic Achievement
This research review examines how supportive school and classroom climates can positively influence the academic outcomes of students and reduce academic achievement gaps between students and schools of different socioeconomic status backgrounds.
Authors: Ruth Berkowitz, Hadass Moore, Ron Avi Astor, and Rami Benbenishty
Publication Date: November 2016
Publisher: SAGE Journals

Advanced Tiers in High School: Lessons Learned from Initial Implementation
The intent of this brief is to share lessons learned related to strengths and challenges that have influenced the initial implementation of advanced tiers of support for schools and lessons learned for district leaders and trainers to consider when supporting high schools.
Authors: Katherine Meyer, Susannah Everett, and Jen Freeman
Publication Date: April 2021
Publisher: Center on PBIS, University of Oregon

Best Practices, Strategies, and Recommendations for Improving School Climate and Culture
This report reviews resources for interventions or approaches that may help to improve school climate and culture. Each resource includes a list of best practices, strategies, or recommendations.
Publication Date: March 2018
Publisher: Southeast Comprehensive Center at American Institutes for Research

Bullying Prevention in Positive Behavior Support: Expect Respect
The purpose of this handbook is to improve the success of schools as effective learning environments by establishing expectations for common respect. It includes procedures that have been demonstrated to be practical and effective.
Authors: Brianna C. Stiller, Rhonda N.T. Nese, Anne K. Tomlanovich, Robert H. Horner, and Scott W. Ross
Publication Date: February 2013
Publisher: University of Oregon

Climate Change: Providing Equitable Access to a Rigorous and Engaging Curriculum
This paper discusses the relationship between rigorous and engaging curriculum and a positive school climate, access to a rigorous and engaging curriculum and accelerated courses for all students, and promising approaches to increasing access to a rigorous and engaging curriculum and accelerated courses.
Publication Date: November 2013
Publisher: Alliance for Excellent Education

Connecting Schoolwide SEL with Other School-Based Frameworks
This guide describes a learning environment that infuses social emotional learning (SEL) into all aspects of instruction and promotes equitable outcomes for all students when fully implemented.
Publication Date: October 2018
Publisher: Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning

Culturally Responsive Positive Behavior Supports: Considerations for Practice 
This paper describes Culturally Responsive Positive Behavior Intervention Supports (CRPBIS) as a system that specifically acknowledges the presence of culturally and linguistically diverse students and the need for them to find relevant connections among themselves and with the behavioral goals and objectives that schools ask them to perform. 
Authors: Tachelle Banks and Festus E. Obiakor
Publication Date: March 2015
Publisher: Journal of Education and Training Studies

Data-Based Individualization: A Framework for Intensive Intervention
This document introduces and describes the data-based individualization (DBI) process, a framework for addressing the needs of students who require intensive intervention in academics and/or behavior, and the continuous interplay between assessment and intervention.
Publication Date: March 2013
Publisher: Office of Special Education Programs, U.S. Department of Education

ESSentials LogoESSentials: PBIS Universal Tier ~ High School
This resource discusses using video as a tool to support implementation and sustainability of universal practices of PBIS. Included are video examples from Arizona’s Westwood High School and Sierra Linda High School.
Publication Date: June 2015
Publisher: Arizona Department of Education, Exceptional Student Services

High School Acknowledgement Systems
This practice brief is focused on effective ways to build an acknowledgement system that works in high school. It starts by suggesting why considering a formal acknowledgement system is appropriate in high school, and then reviews examples of strategies that have been demonstrated to be effective.
Authors: K. Brigid Flannery, Robert Horner, Patricia Hershfeldt, Stephanie Martinez, and Tamika La Salle
Publication Date: August 2020
Publisher: Center on PBIS, University of Oregon

How to Sell SEL: Parents and the Politics of Social-Emotional Learning
To better understand parents’ take on SEL and to explore possible pitfalls in communicating with them about SEL and its place in schools, this nationally representative poll of 2,000 parents of children in grades K–12 was commissioned. The results can help educators and policymakers gain parental support for their efforts.
Authors: Amber M. Northern and Michael J. Petrilli
Publication Date: August 2021
Publisher: The Thomas B. Fordham Institute

If Discipline Referral Rates for the School as a Whole Are Reduced, Will Rates for Students with Disabilities Also Be Reduced?
This study indicates a national sample of 85 schools reducing Office Discipline Referral (ODRs) rates by 10% or more for major offences for the school as a whole including reduced discipline referrals for students in special education.
Authors: Tary Tobin, Rob Horner, Claudia Vincent, and Jessica Swain-Bradway
Publication Date: November 2012
Publisher: OSEP Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

Is School-Wide Positive Behavior Support an Evidence-Based Practice?
This document lays out the current evidence assessing SWPBS and the considerations that may be relevant for state, district and national decision-makers.
Authors: Robert H. Horner, George Sugai, and Timothy Lewis
Publication Date: April 2015
Publisher: OSEP Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

Looking Inside and Across 33 Leading SEL Programs: A Practical Resource for Schools and OST Providers
This guide provides detailed and transparent information about commonly used, evidence-based SEL programs for elementary, preschool, early childhood education providers, and out-of-school time organizations. It provides background Information on SEL and recommendations for adapting SEL for out-of-school time settings,
achieving equitable SEL, and a trauma-sensitive approach to SEL.
Authors: Stephanie M. Jones, Katharine E. Brush, Thelma Ramirez, Zoe Xinyi Mao, Michele Marenus, Samantha 
Wettje, Kristen Finney, Natasha Raisch, Nicole Podoloff, Jennifer Kahn, Sophie Barnes, Laura Stickle, 
Gretchen Brion-Meisels, Joseph McIntyre, Jorge Cuartas, Rebecca Bailey
Publication Date: July 2021 Revised and Expanded Second Edition
Publisher: The Wallace Foundation

Out-of-School Suspension for Minor Misbehavior
This evaluation brief examines the practice of using out-of-school suspension as a consequence for behavior coded as “minor” on office discipline referral forms.
Authors: Bert M. Eliason, Robert H. Horner, and Seth L. May
Publication Date: January 2013
Publisher: Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

PBIS High School Implementation: Leveraging Features of the PBIS Framework to Support College and Career Readiness
The purpose of this brief is to provide guidance and concrete examples to school personnel of how schools can leverage an existing PBIS framework to support College and Career Readiness efficiently and effectively.
Authors: Jennifer Freeman, Laura Kern, Allison Lombardi, Mary Morningstar, and Valerie Mazzotti
Publication Date: March 2021
Publisher: Center on PBIS, University of Oregon

Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports
This website gives schools capacity-building information and resources for identifying, adapting, and sustaining effective school-wide positive disciplinary practices. 
Publisher: OSEP Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

Reducing Behavior Problems in the Elementary School Classroom
This practice guide formulates evidence-based recommendations for use by educators to address the challenge of reducing behavior problems in elementary school classrooms. The guide provides practical, clear information on critical behavior-related topics and is based on the best available evidence. 
Publication Date: September 2008
Publishers: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. 
Department of Education

Social Emotional Learning in High School: How Three Urban High Schools Engage, Educate, and Empower Youth
This research brief shows taking a social emotional approach to education will be most effective when these strategies are developmentally informed, practiced through both whole school implementation and direct instruction, and grounded in the needs of diverse students.
Authors: MarYam G. Hamedani and Linda Darling-Hammond
Publication Date: March 2015
Publisher: Stanford Center for Opportunity Policy in Education

Supporting and Responding to Behavior: Evidence-Based Classroom Strategies for Teachers
This document summarizes evidence-based, positive, proactive, and responsive classroom behavior intervention and support strategies for teachers to help capitalize on instruction time and decrease disruptions.
Authors: Brandi Simonsen, Jennifer Freeman, Steve Goodman, Barbara Mitchell, Jessica Swain-Bradway, Brigid Flannery, George Sugai, Heather George, and Bob Putman
Publication Date: 2015
Publisher: U.S. Office of Special Education Programs

Teaching Social-Emotional Competencies within a PBIS Framework
The purpose of this brief is to describe how school personnel can teach social-emotional competencies within a PBIS framework to support systematic, schoolwide implementation through one system, rather than trying to improve student outcomes through separate, competing initiatives.
Authors: Susan Barrett, Lucille Eber, Kent McIntosh, Kelly Perales, and Natalie Romer
Publication Date: April 2018
Publisher: Center on PBIS, University of Oregon

Using Office Discipline Referrals as a Behavioral Screener: Considerations From NCII and the Center on PBIS
Recommendations are given for using office discipline referral data as part of a gated screening process within clear schoolwide behavioral expectations, consistent and operationalized definitions for behavioral infractions, and systematic procedures for collecting and analyzing discipline data.
Publication Date: October 2020
Publisher: National Center on Intensive Intervention and The Center on Positive Behavioral Intervention and Supports

Why Prioritize Behavior Support?
This brief describes why it's critical to continue to prioritize behavior support in addition to academic, social, and emotional supports. With effective behavior support implemented within a PBIS framework, rigorous research has demonstrated that students and educators experience positive outcomes.
Publication Date: March 2021
Publisher: Center on PBIS, University of Oregon