Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

10 Years of Social and Emotional Learning in U.S. School Districts Elements for Long-Term Sustainability of SEL
This report outlines six elements within a district that can help bring all stakeholders to the table to contribute to the long-term sustainability of Social and Emotional Learning. Each element is drawn from experience of partnering with the Collaborating Districts Initiative and informed by a review of their implementation reports and relevant research. 
Publication Date: November 2021
Publisher: CASEL

A Research Synthesis of the Associations Between Socioeconomic Background, Inequality, School Climate, and Academic Achievement
This research review examines how supportive school and classroom climates can positively influence the academic outcomes of students and reduce academic achievement gaps between students and schools of different socioeconomic status backgrounds.
Authors: Ruth Berkowitz, Hadass Moore, Ron Avi Astor, and Rami Benbenishty
Publication Date: November 2016
Publisher: SAGE Journals

Best Practices, Strategies, and Recommendations for Improving School Climate and Culture
This report reviews resources for interventions or approaches that may help to improve school climate and culture. Each resource includes a list of best practices, strategies, or recommendations.
Publication Date: March 2018
Publisher: Southeast Comprehensive Center at American Institutes for Research

Bully Prevention Manual (Elementary Level)
This handbook focuses on reducing bullying behavior through the blending of school-wide positive behavior support, explicit instruction, and a redefinition of the bullying construct.
Authors: Bruce Stiller, Scott Ross, and Robert H. Horner
Publication Date: August 2012
Publisher: TA Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

Climate Change: Providing Equitable Access to a Rigorous and Engaging Curriculum
This paper discusses the relationship between rigorous and engaging curriculum and a positive school climate, access to a rigorous and engaging curriculum and accelerated courses for all students, and promising approaches to increasing access to a rigorous and engaging curriculum and accelerated courses.
Publication Date: November 2013
Publisher: Alliance for Excellent Education

Connecting Schoolwide SEL with Other School-Based Frameworks
This guide describes a learning environment that infuses social emotional learning (SEL) into all aspects of instruction and promotes equitable outcomes for all students when fully implemented.
Publication Date: October 2018
Publisher: Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning

Culturally Responsive Positive Behavior Supports: Considerations for Practice 
This paper describes Culturally Responsive Positive Behavior Intervention Supports (CRPBIS) as a system that specifically acknowledges the presence of culturally and linguistically diverse students and the need for them to find relevant connections among themselves and with the behavioral goals and objectives that schools ask them to perform. 
Authors: Tachelle Banks and Festus E. Obiakor
Publication Date: March 2015
Publisher: Journal of Education and Training Studies

Data-Based Individualization: A Framework for Intensive Intervention
This document introduces and describes the data-based individualization (DBI) process, a framework for addressing the needs of students who require intensive intervention in academics and/or behavior, and the continuous interplay between assessment and intervention.
Publication Date: March 2013
Publisher: Office of Special Education Programs, U.S. Department of Education

Data-Based Individualization: A Framework for Intensive Intervention
This document introduces and describes the data-based individualization (DBI) process, a framework for addressing the needs of students who require intensive intervention in academics and/or behavior. 
Publication Date: March 2013
Publisher: National Center on Intensive Intervention

ESSentials LogoESSentials: PBIS Universal Tier ~ Elementary School
This resource discusses using video as a tool to support implementation and sustainability of universal practices of PBIS. Included is a video example from Arizona’s Fireside Elementary.
Publication Date: June 2015
Publisher: Arizona Department of Education, Exceptional Student Services

If Discipline Referral Rates for the School as a Whole Are Reduced, Will Rates for Students with Disabilities Also Be Reduced?
This study indicates a national sample of 85 schools reducing Office Discipline Referral (ODRs) rates by 10% or more for major offences for the school as a whole including reduced discipline referrals for students in special education.
Authors: Tary Tobin, Rob Horner, Claudia Vincent, and Jessica Swain-Bradway
Publication Date: November 2012
Publisher: OSEP Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

Is School-Wide Positive Behavior Support an Evidence-Based Practice?
This document lays out the current evidence assessing SWPBS and the considerations that may be relevant for state, district and national decision-makers.
Authors: Robert H. Horner, George Sugai, and Timothy Lewis
Publication Date: April 2015
Publisher: OSEP Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

Looking Inside and Across 33 Leading SEL Programs: A Practical Resource for Schools and OST Providers
This guide provides detailed and transparent information about commonly used, evidence-based SEL programs for elementary, preschool, early childhood education providers, and out-of-school time organizations. It provides background Information on SEL and recommendations for adapting SEL for out-of-school time settings,
achieving equitable SEL, and a trauma-sensitive approach to SEL.
Authors: Stephanie M. Jones, Katharine E. Brush, Thelma Ramirez, Zoe Xinyi Mao, Michele Marenus, Samantha 
Wettje, Kristen Finney, Natasha Raisch, Nicole Podoloff, Jennifer Kahn, Sophie Barnes, Laura Stickle, 
Gretchen Brion-Meisels, Joseph McIntyre, Jorge Cuartas, Rebecca Bailey
Publication Date: July 2021 Revised and Expanded Second Edition
Publisher: The Wallace Foundation

Out-of-School Suspension for Minor Misbehavior
This evaluation brief examines the practice of using out-of-school suspension as a consequence for behavior coded as “minor” on office discipline referral forms.
Authors: Bert M. Eliason, Robert H. Horner, and Seth L. May
Publication Date: January 2013
Publisher: Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports
This website gives schools capacity-building information and resources for identifying, adapting, and sustaining effective school-wide positive disciplinary practices. 
Publisher: OSEP Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

Reducing Behavior Problems in the Elementary School Classroom
This practice guide formulates evidence-based recommendations for use by educators to address the challenge of reducing behavior problems in elementary school classrooms. The guide provides practical, clear information on critical behavior-related topics and is based on the best available evidence. 
Publication Date: September 2008
Publishers: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. 
Department of Education

Supporting and Responding to Behavior: Evidence-Based Classroom Strategies for Teachers
This document summarizes evidence-based, positive, proactive, and responsive classroom behavior intervention and support strategies for teachers to help capitalize on instruction time and decrease disruptions.
Authors: Brandi Simonsen, Jennifer Freeman, Steve Goodman, Barbara Mitchell, Jessica Swain-Bradway, Brigid Flannery, George Sugai, Heather George, and Bob Putman
Publication Date: 2015
Publisher: U.S. Office of Special Education Programs

Teaching Social-Emotional Competencies within a PBIS Framework
The purpose of this brief is to describe how school personnel can teach social-emotional competencies within a PBIS framework to support systematic, schoolwide implementation through one system, rather than trying to improve student outcomes through separate, competing initiatives.
Authors: Susan Barrett, Lucille Eber, Kent McIntosh, Kelly Perales, and Natalie Romer
Publication Date: April 2018
Publisher: Center on PBIS, University of Oregon

Using Office Discipline Referrals as a Behavioral Screener: Considerations From NCII and the Center on PBIS
Recommendations are given for using office discipline referral data as part of a gated screening process within clear schoolwide behavioral expectations, consistent and operationalized definitions for behavioral infractions, and systematic procedures for collecting and analyzing discipline data.
Publication Date: October 2020
Publisher: National Center on Intensive Intervention and The Center on Positive Behavioral Intervention and Supports

Why Prioritize Behavior Support?
This brief describes why it's critical to continue to prioritize behavior support in addition to academic, social, and emotional supports. With effective behavior support implemented within a PBIS framework, rigorous research has demonstrated that students and educators experience positive outcomes.
Publication Date: March 2021
Publisher: Center on PBIS, University of Oregon