A Guide to Adaptations
This document defines and describes an evidence-based inclusion framework and provides definitions and examples of adaptations that adults can use to ensure young children with disabilities can participate fully in STEM learning experiences.
Authors: Victoria Waters, Tracey West, Chih-Ing Lim, and Megan Vinh
Publication Date: Revised July 2021
Publisher: STEM Innovation for Inclusion in Early Education Center

A Guide to Teaching Practices
This document defines and describes evidence-based teaching strategies and provides examples of each teaching strategy that adults may use to ensure young children with disabilities can participate fully in STEM learning experiences.
Authors: Victoria Waters, Tracey West, Chih-Ing Lim, Pip Campbell, and Sarah Pedonti
Publication Date: Revised July 2021
Publisher: STEM Innovation for Inclusion in Early Education Center

A Model for RTI in Pre-K: Recognition and Response
This article provides a comparison of how RTI practices translate into the Response and Recognition framework for preschoolers.
Publisher: RTI Action Network, National Center for Learning Disabilities

Apps That Rise to the Top: Tested and Approved By Teachers
This extensive list of reviews with links provides teachers with knowledge of what the apps do and for what grade levels they are best suited. 
Publisher: Mind/Shift

Assistive Technology
This online module teaches how to use assistive technology interventions to promote children’s access to and participation in inclusive settings
Publisher: The Center to Mobilize Early Childhood Knowledge

Assistive Technology for Infants, Toddlers, and Young Children with Disabilities
This information brief answers questions regarding research-based assistive technology (AT) that can help young children with disabilities to learn developmental skills.
Publication Date: 2006
Publisher: Technical Assistance ALLIANCE for Parent Centers

Assistive Technology Short Term Loan Library
A wide variety of assistive technology devices, equipment, software and professional development materials are available free of charge to Arizona school personnel.
Publisher: Arizona Department of Education

Best Practices in the Use of Developmental Delay in Arizona
This position paper supports the premise that early identification of and intervention for developmental and learning problems in young children occurs best via a non-categorical service delivery model. 
Publisher: Arizona Association of School Psychologists

Case Studies of Schools Implementing Early Elementary Strategies: Preschool Through Third Grade Alignment and Differentiated Instruction
This study examined two types of strategies, aligning instruction from preschool through grade 3 and differentiated instruction, that preliminary literature searches revealed as promising practices to support children’s learning in early elementary school. 
Prepared by: Karen Manship, Jonathan Farber, Claire Smith, and Katie Drummond
Publication Date: December 2016
Publisher: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Planning, Evaluation and Policy Development, Policy and Program 
Studies Service

Contributions of Emergent Literacy Skills to Name Writing, Letter Writing, and Spelling in Preschool Children
This document discusses a research study focused on the connection between emergent literacy skills, name writing, letter writing, and spelling in preschool children.
Authors: Cynthia S. Puranik, Christopher J. Lonigan, and Young-Suk Kim
Publication Date: September 2011
Publisher: National Institute of Health

Developing Early Literacy: Report of the National Early Literacy Panel – A Scientific Synthesis of Early Literacy Development and Implications for Intervention
This extensive synthesis, developed by a panel of nationally recognized experts, includes the study of learning environments, effective early interventions, and valuable information for the Early Childhood community.
Authors: National Early Literacy Panel
Publication Date: 2008
Publisher: National Institute for Literacy

Digital Resources in Early Childhood Literacy Development
This research brief discusses how careful, intentional, and developmentally appropriate use of digital texts and tools can build young children’s language and literacy skills while providing young children with opportunities to deepen their understanding about the forms and functions of digital text in meaning making.
Publisher: International Literacy Association
Publication Date: 2019

Early Literacy Instruction: Research Applications in the Classroom
This article reviews various research studies to identify essential elements of effective early literacy classroom instruction.
Author: Chia-Hui Lin
Publisher: Reading Rockets

Early Math Matters: Preparing Preschoolers to Succeed
This article discusses building on a child’s natural interest in math while monitoring a child’s progress and making adjustments in instruction to address difficulties in understanding and mastering early math concepts.
Author: Kristin Stanberry
Publisher: National Center for Learning Disabilities

Embedded Interventions
This online module teaches how to use a decision-making model for embedded interventions to help a child more fully participate in an inclusive setting.
Publisher: The Center to Mobilize Early Childhood Knowledge

Framework for Developing Evidence-Based Early Literacy Learning Practices
A research-to-practice framework is described for synthesizing research evidence on early literacy learning and using this information for developing evidence-based early literacy learning practices.
Authors: Carl J. Dunst, Carol M. Trivette, Tracy Masiello, Nicole Roper, and Anya Robyak
Publication Date: 2006
Publisher: Center for Early Learning Literacy

From Scribbles to Scrabble: Preschool Children’s Developing Knowledge of Written Language
This document discusses a research study that found evidence to support the developmental progression of emergent writing skills that teachers should facilitate using a differentiated approach to instruction.
Authors: Cynthia S. Puranik and Christopher J. Lonigan
Publication Date: September 2011
Publisher: National Institute of Health

General Practice Guides Especially for Practitioners
These guides can be used by early childhood educators, child care providers, early interventionists, and other early childhood practitioners for promoting literacy learning using interest-based and highly engaging activities.
Publisher: Center for Early Learning Literacy

Help! They Still Don’t Understand Counting
This article describes a developmental framework for counting with activities derived from recent research and long-established best practices and discusses how difficulty with counting may or may not be indicative of a math disability.
Author: Faith H. Sadler
Publication Date: October 2009
Publisher: TEACHING Exceptional Children Plus

How School Literacy Plans Connect to Third-Grade Reading Achievement 
Read On Arizona and the Arizona Department of Education partnered to better understand how the programs and interventions reported in school literacy plans are related to third grade reading achievement. This study takes an initial look at the data that focuses on schools’ core reading programs and universal screeners.
Author: Robert Vagi
Publication Date: December 2018
Publisher: Read On Arizona

How Will I Know Before It’s Too Late? Screening in Early Grades
A main goal of multi-tiered system of supports (MTSS) is to identify and intervene early with students who are struggling. This article breaks down how to identify struggling students who need intervention.
Author: Allison Gruner Gandhi
Publication Date: January 2019
Publisher: Center on Multi-Tiered Systems of Support at the American Institutes for Research

Interest-Based Everyday Literacy Activity Checklist
Young children learn to listen, talk, read, and write as part of their involvement in interesting activities. This is a checklist for parents to identify everyday activities that occur at home.
Publisher: Center for Early Learning Literacy

Learning Disabilities and Young Children: Identification and Intervention
This paper addresses early identification, services, supports, and intervention for young children who demonstrate delays in development that may place them at risk for later identification as having a learning disability (LD).
Publication Date: 2006 
Publisher: National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities

Phonemic Activities for the Preschool or Elementary Classroom
This article features activities designed to stimulate the development of phonemic awareness in preschool and elementary school children.
Authors: Marilyn J. Adams, Barbara Foorman, Ingvar Lundberg, and Terri Beeler
Publisher: Reading Rockets

Phonological Awareness Training
This research report focuses on phonological awareness training and found it to have potentially positive effects on communication/language competencies for children with learning disabilities in early education settings.
Publication Date: June 2012
Publisher: What Works Clearinghouse, Institute of Education Sciences

Pioneering Literacy in the Digital Wild West: Empowering Parents and Educators
The projects, products, and research studies highlighted in this report point to the untapped promise that well-deployed technologies can have in helping children who are failing to perform well in early reading assessments. 
Authors: Lisa Guernsey, Michael Levine, Cynthia Chiong, and Maggie Severns
Publisher: Campaign for Grade-level Reading

Practice Guides with Adaptations 
Written for both parents and practitioners, the practice guides describe everyday home, community, and childcare learning opportunities that encourage early literacy learning.
Publisher: Center for Early Learning Literacy

Preschool Math Grows Up: Tips for Teachers
This article discusses the essential elements that comprise an effective preschool math program and includes tips to establish baseline skills and measure improvement for individual students.
Author: Kristin Stanberry
Publisher: National Center for Learning Disabilities

Preschool Through Third Grade Alignment and Differentiated Instruction: A Literature Review
This U.S. Department of Education’s Policy and Program Studies Service literature review provides a review of policies, programs, and practices that have the potential to help students sustain the positive effects of preschool as they progress from kindergarten through grade 3 (K–3).
Prepared by: Katie Drummond, Aleksandra Holod, Marie Perrot, Antonia Wang, Michèle Muñoz-Miller, Mackson Ncube, and Herb Turner
Publication Date: August 2016
Publisher: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Planning, Evaluation and Policy Development, Policy and Program Studies Service

Quality Indicators of Inclusive Early Childhood Programs/Practices: A Compilation of Selected Resources
Available resources and indicators of high quality inclusive practices are presented in this compilation. Excerpts and adaptations of the resources are provided with links to more complete information.
Authors: Debbie Cate, Martha Diefendorf, Katy McCullough, Mary Peters, and Kathy Whaley
Publication Date: September 2010
Publisher: National Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center

Recognition and Response: An Early Intervening System for Young Children At-Risk for Learning Disabilities
This document explains an early intervening system designed to help parents and teachers respond to learning difficulties in young children who may be at risk for learning disabilities beginning at age 3 or 4.
Authors: Mary Ruth Coleman, Virginia Buysse, and Jennifer Neitzel
Publication Date: 2006
Publisher: Reading Rockets

Repeated Book Reading and Preschoolers’ Early Literacy Development
This synthesis of research provides evidence of the positive impact of repeated book reading on story-related vocabulary and story-related comprehension for the language and literacy development of young children. 
Authors: Carol M. Trivette, Andrew Simkus, Carl J. Dunst, and Deborah W. Hamby
Publication Date: 2012
Publisher: Center for Early Literacy Learning

Research Synthesis Points on Quality Inclusive Practices
This document provides brief descriptions and supporting references for the evidence-based and promising practices that support early childhood inclusion. These practices are organized into access, participation, and supports to create an infrastructure of systems-level supports for implementing high-quality inclusion.
Publication Date: 2011
Publisher: University of North Carolina Chapel Hill and FPG Child Development Institute

Routes to Grade Level Reading: Strategies for Improving Early Literacy Outcomes
This guide covers family engagement, early literacy strategies, professional development, assessment, building an early literacy continuum, and creating a plan to institute the strategies to serve children 0-8 years old.
Publication Date: 2015
Publisher: Read On Arizona

Screening for Reading Problems in Preschool and Kindergarten: An Overview of Select Measures
This article explains the effective use of screening tools and provides information for widely used tools for preschool and kindergarten children on predictive validity, criterion measure used, and skills assessed.
Authors: Juli L. Pool and Evelyn S. Johnson
Publisher: National Center for Learning Disabilities

Supporting Practitioners in their Implementation of Recommended Practices: Using Practice-Based Coaching
This document describes the use of practice-based coaching that was developed from the literature on effective coaching elements and has been used with classroom teachers and early intervention personnel.
Author: Lisa Fox
Publication Date: April 2017
Publisher: Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center

Teachers’ Attitudes Toward Inclusion: Factors Influencing Classroom Practice
This study examined teachers’ attitudes toward inclusive practices. Teachers indicated that appropriate preservice training, support from administrators, and support from resource personnel are important to provide a successful inclusive environment.
Authors: Jane M. Leatherman and Judith A. Niemeyer
Publication Date: February 2007
Publisher: Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education

Teaching Math to Young Children
This practice guide presents five recommendations designed to capitalize on children’s natural interest in math to make their preschool and school experience more engaging and beneficial. 
Authors: Douglas Frye, Arthur J. Baroody, Margaret Burchinal, Sharon M. Carver, Nancy C. Jordan, and Judy McDowell
Publication Date: November 2013
Publisher: Institute of Education Sciences

Teaching Our Youngest: A Guide for Preschool Teachers and Child Care and Family Providers
This booklet includes scientifically-based research strategies for helping children develop their language abilities, increase their knowledge, become familiar with books and other printed materials, learn letters and sounds, recognize numbers, and learn to count. 
Authors: Bonnie Armbruster, Fran Lehr, and Jean Osborn
Publication Date: 2002
Publisher: U.S. Department of Education and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Early Childhood-Head Start Task Force

Tiered Instruction
This online module teaches how to use a decision-making model to integrate various sources of evidence and determine whether tiered instruction could be used to promote positive behaviors and academic learning.
Publisher: The Center to Mobilize Early Childhood Knowledge

Tip Sheet for Teachers
This list provides teachers with tips on literacy instruction and includes adaptations.
Publisher: Center for Early Learning Literacy