Considering Paraeducator Training, Roles, and Responsibilities
This article addresses ways that teachers can provide training so that paraeducators are qualified to perform services, as well as delineating the diverse roles and responsibilities that paraeducators hold.
Author: Diane Carroll
Publication Date: 2001
Publisher: Council for Exceptional Children

One-to-One Paraprofessionals for Students With Disabilities in Inclusive Classrooms: Is Conventional Wisdom Wrong? 
This article presents five main reasons that challenge overreliance on the use of one-to-one paraprofessionals in inclusive classrooms, establishing it as a critical issue in special education. A series of recommended positions and initial actions are offered to spur debate and encourage development of alternatives to the status quo.
Author: Michael F. Giangreco
Publication Date: February 2010
Publisher: American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

Paraeducators Perceptions of Their Roles in Inclusive Classrooms: A National Study of Paraeducators
This study indicates the role of the paraeductor in the inclusive classroom is evolving into that of a collaborative partner who plans and works with the teacher to assure goal attainment for the students.
Author: Ida Malian 
Publication Date: Summer 2011
Publisher: Electronic Journal for Inclusive Education

This article defines the term “paraprofessional” as found in the No Child Left Behind Act and discusses typical duties.
Publication Date: Updated February 2013
Publisher: National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities

Paraprofessionals: The “Sous Chefs” of Literacy Instruction
This article outlines the commonalities in circumstances in which paraprofessionals were used successfully to improve the reading skills of students.
Authors: Julie N. Causton-Theoharis, Michael F. Giangreco, Mary Beth Doyle, and Patricia F. Vadasy
Publication Date: 2007
Publisher: Council for Exceptional Children

Perspectives of Students With Intellectual Disabilities About Their Experiences With Paraprofessional Support
Perspectives of students with disabilities are notably absent from research about special education paraprofessionals. This study begins filling that gap by interviewing 16 young adults with intellectual disabilities about their experiences attending general education classes with paraprofessional support.
Authors: Stephen Broer, Mary Beth Doyle, and Michael Giangreco
Publication Date: 2005
Publisher: Council for Exceptional Children

Position Statement on Training for Paraeducators in Special Education
This position paper discusses how to prepare paraprofessionals for their critical instructional role with implementing ongoing, competency‐based, systematically planned preservice and in-service professional development specifically targeted for paraeducators.
Authors: Denise J. Uitto, Ritu V. Chopra, and Janet Stivers
Publication Date: March 2017
Publisher: Council for Exceptional Children

Respect, Appreciation, and Acknowledgment of Paraprofessionals Who Support Students with Disabilities
This article describes the experiences of school personnel, including classroom teachers, paraprofessionals, special educators, and administrators who worked in four schools, Grades K-12.
Author: Michael F. Giangreco
Publication Date: Summer 2001
Publisher: Council for Exceptional Children

Roles and Responsibilities of Paraprofessionals: In Their Own Words
This study focused on the perceptions of paraprofessionals regarding the roles they fulfill while working with children with disabilities in special education and inclusive settings.
Author: Karen B. Patterson
Publication Date: May 2006
Publisher: TEACHING Exceptional Children Plus

Team Players and Team Managers: Special Educators Working with Paraeducators to Support Inclusive Classrooms
This paper summarizes recommendations from a selection of international research literature urging teachers to take the initiative to invite paraeducators to participate fully as team players in collaborative work.
Authors: Betty Y. Ashbaker and Jill Morgan
Publication Date: June 2012
Publisher: Scientific Research

Teaming and Partnering to Improve Results for Children and Youth with Disabilities
This manual provides paraeducators and teachers information regarding roles and responsibilities and a plan to meet the needs of the teacher, paraeducators, and students.
Publication Date: 2010
Publisher: Technical Assistance for Excellence in Special Education

The Role of Paraprofessionals in Special Education
This Study of Personnel Needs in Special Education (SPeNSE) fact sheet describes how to understand the contexts in which paraprofessionals work and use that information to provide them with appropriate training and supervision.
Publication Date: 2013
Publisher: U.S. Office of Special Education Programs

What Do Paraeducators in Inclusive Classrooms Say About Their Work? Analysis of National Survey Data and Follow-up Interviews in California
This study explores the multidimensional role of paraeducators who work in inclusive classrooms.
Authors: Andrea G. Liston, Ann Nevin, and Ida Malian
Publication Date: May 2009
Publisher: TEACHING Exceptional Children Plus