Formative Assessment

4 Formative Assessment Practices that Make a Difference in Classrooms
Research shows that keeping four practices at the core of instruction makes a big difference. This article discusses clarifying learning, eliciting evidence, providing feedback, and activating learners. It includes formative assessment strategies and techniques with implementation tools and tips
Publication Date: March 2016
Publisher: Northwest Evaluation Association

An Integrated Approach to Defining a System-Level Theory of Action for Formative Assessment
This is a discussion of an ecological theory of action for formative assessment within the system for planning interventions and policies that support increased and improved teacher practice and student learning. It includes a discussion of the program evaluation theory of action that can be utilized after programs are in place to ensure that the system is working as intended.
Publication Date: June 2018
Publisher: Council of Chief State School Officers

Communicating Learning Goals and Success Criteria with Students
This brief explains including students as part of the Learning Goals and Success Criteria assessment process through understanding the indicators and using them to monitor their own learning.
Author: Nancy Gerzon
Publication Date: October 2020
Publisher: WestEd

Effective Use of Formative Assessment by High School Teachers
The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to gain an understanding of high school teachers’ perceptions of the formative assessment process and its impact on classroom instruction, modifications to curriculum planning, and student learning. The focus was on obtaining information about how high school teachers’ perceptions of formative assessment impacted the instructional practices they used.
Authors: Melanie Brink and David Bartz
Publication Date: October 2017
Publisher: Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation

Formative Assessment - Group Instruction
These group instruction videos focus on the application of the entire range of strategies for multiple students in a small group or class-wide context. The videos represent a cross section of instructional focus, student ages, and student abilities.
Publisher: University of Louisville

Formative Assessment for Students with Disabilities
This report provides special education teachers and general education teachers with an introduction to the knowledge and skills they need to implement formative assessment for students with disabilities in their classrooms. The strategies work for all students, including those who are low-performing, with or without disabilities.
Authors: Susan Brookhart and S. Lazarus
Publication Date: February 2017
Publisher: Council of Chief State School Officers

Formative Assessment the Student Role
This document provides information specific to the active role of students in the formative assessment process. A table displays the teacher role and the corresponding student role for each of the 10 dimensions of formative assessment.
Publication Date: January 2018
Publisher: WestEd

Revising the Definition of Formative Assessment
This updated definition of formative assessment is intended to integrate new applications, research, and findings that have evolved since the definition was initially drafted.
Publication Date: November 2018
Publisher: Council of Chief State School Officers

The Association between Teachers’ Use of Formative Assessment Practices and Students’ Use of Self-Regulated Learning Strategies
This study was conducted with three Arizona school districts that surveyed teachers and students in grades 3–12 in spring 2019 to better understand the association between teachers’ use of formative assessment practices and students’ use of self-regulated learning strategies and to help shape related teacher development efforts moving forward.
Authors: Reino Makkonen and Karina Jaquet
Publication Date: November 2020
Publisher: Institute of Education Sciences

The Impact of Formative Assessment and Learning Intentions on Student Achievement
This brief begins with an analysis of current research linking formative assessment to academic performance and then moves into a discussion of learning objectives’ impact on student outcomes.
Publication Date: August 2014
Publisher: Hanover Research

The Power of Evidence Use in Formative Assessment
This brief discusses how the process of eliciting, interpreting, and responding to evidence of student learning creates the conditions for teachers and students to shift their conception of learning itself to be one that arises out of and promotes collective knowledge.
Authors: Barbara Jones and Nancy Gerzon
Publication Date: October 2020
Publisher: WestEd

The Student Role in Advanced Formative Assessment Practice: Self-Assessment, Peer Feedback, and Discourse
This paper identifies three critical components of the student role in advanced formative assessment practice and discusses how implementing self-assessment, peer feedback, and discourse help students gain confidence to be able to make decisions about the status of their own learning, to extend that learning, and to envision next steps.
Authors: Nancy Gerzon and Barbara Jones
Publication Date: October 2020
Publisher: WestEd

Using the Formative Assessment Rubrics, Reflection and Observation Tools to Support Professional Reflection on Practice (Revised)
This document provides guidelines for use in observations and reflections on formative assessment practices. Sections address background information on formative assessment, value of informal self-reflection or peer observations as a way to improve formative assessment practice, and a set of rubrics for 10 dimensions of formative assessment practice.
Author: Caroline Wylie and Christine Lyon
Publication Date: February 2016
Publisher: Council of Chief State School Officers