3 Steps to Great Coaching: A Simple but Powerful Instructional Coaching Cycle Nets Results
This article discusses how instructional coaches who use a proven coaching cycle can partner with teachers to set and reach improvement goals that have an unmistakable, positive impact on students’ lives.
Authors: Jim Knight, Marti Elford, Michael Hock, Devona Dunekack, Barbara Bradley, Donald D. Deshler, and David Knight
Publication Date: February 2015
Publisher: Learning Forward

Coaching for Impact: Six Pillars to Create Coaching Roles That Achieve Their Potential to Improve Teaching and Learning
This brief discusses the state of coaching today and six pillars that must be built or strengthened to realize the promise of coaching for all teachers and ultimately, their students: system vision and commitment; recruitment and selectivity; shared responsibility; development and support; role clarity, time and culture; and compensation and sustainability.
Authors: Don Pemberton, Dorene D. Ross, Tracy Crow, Stephanie Hirsh, Bruce Joyce, Joellen Killion, Stephanie Dean, Bryan C. Hassel, Emily Ayscue Hassel, and Kendall King
Publication Date: August 2017
Publisher: Learning Forward

Coaching for Ongoing Professional Learning Within Tiered Support Models
This document provides content-specific examples of how to structure educator-level and/or systems-level coaching as a mechanism to ensure ongoing professional learning to support tiered intervention occurs. It provides examples of coaching supports, models, and functions within the context of tiered intervention and data-based decision making.
Publication Date: March 2020
Publisher: National Center on Intensive Intervention

Comparison of the Effects of Coaching for General and Special Education Teachers in High-Poverty Urban Elementary Schools
This study investigated the effects of a data-driven coaching that integrated observational assessment and performance feedback on general education versus special education teacher practices and student outcomes in high-poverty urban elementary schools.
Authors: Linda A. Reddy, Adam Lekwa, and Elisa Shernoff
Publication Date: 2021
Publisher: Journal of Learning Disabilities

Differentiated Instructional Coaching
Instructional coaching is a unique form of professional development that provides individual assistance to teachers in refining and improving their instructional practices. This article outlines the basics of coaching and the importance of providing differentiated coaching to meet the needs of teachers.
Authors: John Eller and Sheila Eller
Publication Date: May/June 2018
Publisher: National Association of Elementary School Principals

Effective Coaching: Improving Teacher Practice and Outcomes for All Learners
This brief synthesizes research on coaching and offers a framework of effective coaching practices. Part 1 provides general information on coaching, including the need for coaching and the goals of coaching. Part 2 describes critical coaching practices that are linked to improvements in teacher practice and learner outcomes.
Publication Date: November 2014
Publisher: WestEd

Implementation Guide for Effective Coaching of Teachers
Drawing on principles from Implementation Science, this guide outlines key questions to consider when using coaching as a pathway toward improving teaching and learning. It specifies actions that should be taken to appropriately structure the system in which coaching occurs.
Publication Date: June 2016
Publisher: National Center for Systemic Improvement

Learning Walks Artifacts: Examples/Nonexamples
This document provides examples and nonexamples of Learning Walks, a collaborative coaching process to be modeled and experienced with partners, grade-level teams, content area teams, and/or leadership teams. The purpose of the process is to assist educators in staying focused on what matters most in inclusive learning environments, instructional practices, student interactions, and student engagement. Another purpose is to collect evidence of shared professional learning and collaboration over time.
Publication Date: 2020
Publisher: Arizona Department of Education

Practice Profile for Coaching
This document provides seven research-based components of effective coaching to transfer implementation of trained skills or practices with fidelity across contexts. Examples for levels of implementation are given for expected, developmental, and unacceptable use in practice.
Authors: Dale Cusumano and Angela Preston
Publication Date: 2018
Publisher: National implementation Research Network

Study of Teacher Coaching Based on Classroom Videos: Impacts on Student Achievement and Teachers’ Practices
For this study, about 100 elementary schools were randomly divided into three groups: one that received fewer highly structured cycles of focused professional coaching during a single school year, one that received more, and one that continued with its usual strategies for supporting teachers. The study compared teachers’ experiences and student achievement across the three groups to determine the effectiveness of the two versions of the coaching.
Authors: Melissa Clark, Jeffrey Max, Susanne James-Burdumy, Silvia Robles, Moira McCullough, Paul Burkander, and Steven Malick
Publication Date: June 2022
Publisher: Institute of Education Sciences

The Effect of Teacher Coaching on Instruction and Achievement: A Meta-Analysis of the Causal Evidence
This is a review of the empirical literature on teacher coaching and a meta-analyses to estimate the mean effect of coaching programs on teachers’ instructional practice and students’ academic achievement.
Authors: Matthew A. Kraft, David Blazar, and Dylan Hogan
Publication Date: 2018
Publisher: Review of Educational Research