Instructional Leadership

3 Steps to Great Coaching: A Simple but Powerful Instructional Coaching Cycle Nets Results
This article discusses how instructional coaches who use a proven coaching cycle can partner with teachers to set and reach improvement goals that have an unmistakable, positive impact on studentsí lives.
Authors: Jim Knight, Marti Elford, Michael Hock, Devona Dunekack, Barbara Bradley, Donald D. Deshler, and David Knight
Publication Date: February 2015
Publisher: Learning Forward

10 Years of Social and Emotional Learning in U.S. School Districts Elements for Long-Term Sustainability of SEL
This report outlines six elements within a district that can help bring all stakeholders to the table to contribute to the long-term sustainability of Social and Emotional Learning. Each element is drawn from experience of partnering with the Collaborating Districts Initiative and informed by a review of their implementation reports and relevant research. 
Publication Date: November 2021
Publisher: CASEL

A New Wave of Evidence: The Impact of School, Family, and Community Connections on Student Achievement
This report confirms that the research continues to grow and build an ever-strengthening case that when schools, families, and community groups work together to support learning, children tend to do better in school, stay in school longer, and like school more.
Authors: Anne T. Henderson and Karen L. Mapp
Publication Date: 2002
Publisher: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory

A Primer for Continuous Improvement in Schools and Districts
This brief orients educational practitioners to the continuous improvement process and how it can work in educational settings. It provides an overview and includes references and resources that school and district leaders may find helpful as they seek to integrate continuous improvement cycles into their work to improve teaching and learning. 
Authors: Karen Shakman, Jessica Bailey, and Nicole Breslow
Publication Date: February 2017
Publisher: U.S. Department of Education for Teacher Incentive Fund 

A Restorative Approach for Equitable Education
This brief describes how schools can ameliorate racial inequities with research-based practices that advance a restorative approach to schooling and make learning environments more supportive, equitable, and anti-racist.
Authors: Jennifer DePaoli, Laura E. HernŠndez, Roberta C. Furger, and Linda Darling-Hammond
Publication Date: March 2021
Publisher: Learning Policy Institute

A Successful Formula for Middle School Inclusion: Collaboration, Time, and Administrative Support
This report summarizes the results of a survey on attitudes toward inclusion, which was conducted in a middle school in a large school district and given prior to the implementation of full inclusion. 
Authors: Susan Pitts Santoli, John Sachs, Elizabeth A. Romey, and Stephen McClurg
Publication Date: 2008
Publisher: RMLE Online, Research in Middle Level Education

Adolescent Literacy Walk-Through for Principals: A Guide for Instructional Leaders
This guide offers a scaffold to build principalsí understanding of scientifically-based reading instruction, both as a means for gathering information about the quality of literacy and reading intervention instruction in a school and as a data collection guide for planning targeted professional development and resource allocation.
Authors: Lila M. Rissman, Debra H. Miller, and Joseph K. Torgesen
Publication Date: 2009
Publisher: RMC Research Corporation, Center on Instruction

An Administrator's Guide to Preschool Inclusion
This guide offers practical strategies for administrators who are responsible for setting up, monitoring, supporting, and maintaining inclusive programs for preschool children with and without disabilities.
Authors: Ruth Ashworth Wolery and Samuel L. Odom
Publication Date: July 2000
Publisher: Early Childhood Research Institute on Inclusion

Arizona Social and Emotional Learning Competencies
The purpose of these competencies is to provide Arizona districts, schools, and those that partner with them, a set of desired knowledge, skills and behaviors that can be used to implement social-emotional learning within schools and classrooms and intentionally integrate within K-12 content areas.
Publication Date: September 2020
Publisher: Arizona Department of Education

Best Practices, Strategies, and Recommendations for Improving School Climate and Culture
This report reviews resources for interventions or approaches that may help to improve school climate and culture. Each resource includes a list of best practices, strategies, or recommendations.
Publication Date: March 2018
Publisher: Southeast Comprehensive Center at American Institutes for Research

Brief Intervention to Encourage Empathic Discipline Cuts Suspension Rates in Half among Adolescents
This article describes studies conducted by researchers at Stanford University in developing and testing an intervention to reduce suspensions by changing the attitudes of teachers who view discipline from a punitive mindset. 
Authors: Jason A. Okonofuaa, David Pauneskua, and Gregory M. Waltona
Publication Date: May 2016
Publisher: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Building Collective Efficacy: How Leaders Inspire Teachers to Achieve
This issue brief looks at how leaders can engage staff to build ďcollective efficacy," a perception of teachers in a school that the efforts of the faculty as a whole will have a positive effect on student learning.
Authors: Dana Brinson and Lucy Steiner
Publication Date: October 2007
Publisher: The Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement

Building Teacher Collaboration School-wide
This article discusses collaboration within three organizational models: common planning time, professional learning communities, and critical friends groups.
Authors: Micki M. Caskey and Jan Carpenter
Publication Date: October 2014
Publisher: Association for Middle Level Education

Building Technology Infrastructure for Learning
This guide provides practical, actionable information intended to help both technical personnel and educational leaders navigate the many decisions required to deliver broadband connectivity to students. It presents a variety of options for school and district leaders to consider when making technology infrastructure decisions, recognizing that circumstances and context vary greatly from district to district.
Publication Date: June 2017
Publisher: U.S. Department of Education

Central Office Transformation for District-wide Teaching and Learning Improvement
This report summarizes main results from a national study of how leaders in urban school district central offices fundamentally transformed their work and relationships with schools to support districtwide teaching and learning improvement.
Authors: Meredith I. Honig, Michael A. Copland, Lydia Rainey, Juli Anna Lorton, and Morena Newton with the assistance of Elizabeth Matson, Liza Pappas, and Bethany Rogers
Publication Date: April 2010
Publisher: University of Washington 

Classroom Walkthroughs: Learning to See the Trees and the Forest
This article discusses the purpose of walkthroughs, how to do effective walkthroughs, what data to collect, and how to analyze the data to make improvements. 
Author: Howard Pitler with Bryan Goodwin 
Publisher: Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning

Coaching: A Strategy for Developing Instructional Capacity
This paper focuses on the knowledge and skill district leaders need to develop successful, systemwide approaches to coaching and the value to coaches, teachers, principals, and policymakers who can benefit from coaching.
Authors: Barbara Neufeld and Dana Roper
Publication Date: June 2003
Publisher: Education Matters and the Annenberg Institute for School Reform

Coaching for Impact: Six Pillars to Create Coaching Roles That Achieve Their Potential to Improve Teaching and Learning
This brief discusses the state of coaching today and six pillars that must be built or strengthened to realize the promise of coaching for all teachers and ultimately, their students: system vision and commitment; recruitment and selectivity; shared responsibility; development and support; role clarity, time and culture; and compensation and sustainability.
Authors: Don Pemberton, Dorene D. Ross, Tracy Crow, Stephanie Hirsh, Bruce Joyce, Joellen Killion, Stephanie Dean, Bryan C. Hassel, Emily Ayscue Hassel, and Kendall King
Publication Date: August 2017
Publisher: Learning Forward

Coaching for Ongoing Professional Learning Within Tiered Support Models
This document provides content-specific examples of how to structure educator-level and/or systems-level coaching as a mechanism to ensure ongoing professional learning to support tiered intervention occurs. It provides examples of coaching supports, models, and functions within the context of tiered intervention and data-based decision making.
Publication Date: March 2020
Publisher: National Center on Intensive Intervention

Co-Teaching and Team Teaching: Promising Opportunities for Supporting Novice Special Education Teachers Within the School Culture
This brief discusses how collaborative opportunities can counteract the historic isolation of special education teachers.
Publication Date: 2010
National Center to Inform Policy and Practice in Special Education Professional Development

Co-Teaching Beliefs to Support Inclusive Education: Survey of Relationships between General and Special Educators in Inclusive Classes
This studyís results suggest that Arizona general and special educators in co-teaching relationships hold more similar perceptions regarding belief and approaches to teaching and also personal characteristics needed for effect co-teaching relations than dissimilar.
Authors: Ida Malian and Erin McRae
Publication Date: Spring 2010
Publisher: Electronic Journal for Inclusive Education

Collaborating with Special Education Administrators
This article discusses three major questions that principals and special education staff should consider as they collaborate to effect education reform for all students
Author: Judith A. Green
Publication Date: November/December 2008
Publisher: National Association of Elementary School Principals

Common Planning: A Linchpin Practice in Transforming Secondary Schools
This report elaborates the promise and challenges of Common Planning and offer recommendations for stronger, more widespread implementation and rigorous study.
Authors: Nettie Legters, Dia Adams, and Patrice Williams
Publisher: Academy for Educational Development

Connecting Principal Leadership, Teacher Collaboration, and Student Achievement
This study provides evidence of important links between shared instructional leadership, teacher collaboration, and student achievement. Implications for practitioners include encouraging leaders to focus on instruction in their schools and to support teachersí shared leadership and their collaborative practices.
Authors: Yvonne L. Goddard, Robert Miller, Ross Larson, Roger Goddard, Jean Madsen, and Patricia Schroeder
Publication Date: May 2010
Publisher: Education Leadership Research Center at Texas A&M University

Continuous Improvement in Education
This white paper attempts to map the landscape of continuous improvement by identifying and describing organizations engaged in continuous improvement and by highlighting commonalities and differences among them.
Authors: Sandra Park, Stephanie Hironaka, Penny Carver, and Lee Nordstrum 
Publication Date: September 2014
Publisher: Carnegie Foundation

Critical Components of Successful Inclusion of Students with Severe Disabilities: Literature Review
This review provides an overview of literature regarding effective practices for inclusion with a focus on critical components of successful inclusion that work effectively with students with disabilities in inclusive schools.
Authors: Turki Alquraini and Dianne Gut
Publication Date: 2012
Publisher: International Journal of Special Education

Data-Informed Leadership in Education
This paper synthesizes and interprets ideas, frameworks, beliefs, and activities concerning the availability, quality, and use of data in the work of leaders at state and local levels related to the improvement of teaching and learning. 
Authors: Michael S. Knapp, Juli A. Swinnerton, Michael A. Copland, and Jack Monpas-Huber
Publication Date: October 2006
Publisher: Wallace Foundation

Differentiated Instruction, Professional Development, and Teacher Efficacy
This study demonstrated that teacher efficacy is an important dimension in implementing the process of differentiation regardless of what level or what content area the teacher taught (elementary, middle, or high school). Implications and future directions for research are also discussed.
Authors: Felicia A. Dixon, Nina Yssel, John M. McConnell, and Travis Hardin
Publication Date: 2014
Publisher: Journal for the Education of the Gifted

Differentiated Instructional Coaching
This article outlines the basics of coaching and the importance of providing differentiated coaching as a form of professional development to meet the needs of teachers in refining and improving their instructional practices.
Authors: John F. Eller and Sheila A. Eller
Publication Date: May/June 2018
Publisher: National Association of Elementary School Principals

Differentiation for Learning Profile
This overview describes differentiation for learning profile as a proactive approach in which teachers sometimes design different options that reflect studentsí learning preferences, with all activities leading to the same outcomes. 
Publication Date: 2011
Publisher: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development

Dispelling the Myths of Inclusive Education
The purpose of this document is to share and dispel several common myths about inclusive education for students with disabilities.
Publication Date: Spring 2014
Publisher: TASH

Does Inclusion Help Students: Perspectives from Regular Education and Students with Disabilities
This study reported students with disabilities being highly motivated, fulfilled, focused, and successful both academically and socially when learning with students without disabilities. 
Authors: Bonnie Dupuis, Joyce W. Barclay, Sherwin D. Holmes, Morgan Platt, and Steven H. Shaha
Publication Date: Summer 2006
Publisher: Journal of the American Academy of Special Education Professionals

Does Teaching Experience Increase Teacher Effectiveness?
To determine whether teachers, on average, improve in their effectiveness as they gain experience in the teaching
profession, this brief summarizes the key findings from a critical review of the relevant research.
Authors: Tara Kini and Anne Podolsky
Publication Date: June 2016
Publisher: Learning Policy Institute

Dropout and Graduation
This article explores the issues related to the high dropout rate among students with disabilities and provides ideas for improving their graduation rates.
Publisher: National Center on Secondary Education and Transition

Dropout Prevention
This guide provides strategies that include identifying and advocating for at-risk students, implementing programs to improve behavior and social skills, and keeping students engaged in the school environment.
Authors: Mark Dynarski, Linda Clarke, Brian Cobb, Jeremy Finn, Russell Rumberger, and Jay Smink
Publication Date: August 2008
Publisher: Institute of Education Sciences

Early Childhood Inclusion
This joint position statement offers a definition of early childhood inclusion as a blueprint for identifying the key components of high quality inclusive programs. Included are recommendations for how the information should be used to improve early childhood services.
Publication Date: April 2009
Publisher: Division for Early Childhood and National Association for the Education of Young Children

Educating Students with Learning Disabilities in Inclusive Classrooms
This study looks at the need for educators to make placement decisions considering the resources available in their school, in addition to the skill level of the students they work with, in order to make proper decisions regarding least restrictive environment. 
Author: Jeremy Ford
Publication Date: Fall/Winter 2013
Publisher: Electronic Journal for Inclusive Education

Effective Coaching: Improving Teacher Practice and Outcomes for All Learners 
This brief synthesizes research on coaching and offers a framework of effective coaching practices that are linked to improvements in teacher practice and learner outcomes. An appendix contains information about various coaching models commonly cited in research and applied in the field.
Author: Jennifer D. Pierce
Publisher: National Center for Systemic Improvement

Effective Teacher Professional Development
This paper reviews 35 methodologically rigorous studies that have demonstrated a positive link between teacher professional development, teaching practices, and student outcomes. It identifies the features of these approaches and offers rich descriptions of these models.
Authors: Linda Darling-Hammond, Maria E. Hyler, and Madelyn Gardner
Publication Date: June 2017
Publisher: Learning Policy Institute

Engaging Families at the Secondary Level: What Schools Can Do to Support Family Involvement
This article discusses more inclusive family-school involvement strategies at the middle and high school level that successfully support teenage academic achievement.
Authors: Chris Ferguson and Victor Rodriguez
Publication Date: July 2005
Publisher: National Center for Family and Community Connections with Schools

Engaging Native American Learners with Rigor and Cultural Relevance
This Issue Brief explores three areas identified in the literature as promising strategies for improving educational outcomes for Native students: instructional practices, curriculum content, and school climate.
Authors: Abner Oakes and Traci Maday
Publication Date: August 2009
Publisher: Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement

ESSentials LogoESSentials: Data-Driven Instruction/Intervention
This resource explains how Humboldt Elementary created a data-friendly, collaborative culture. Using color-coded data walls, teachers examine the data of all students then work together to provide interventions. 
Publication Date: June 2015
Publisher: Arizona Department of Education, Exceptional Student Services

ESSentials LogoESSentials: Digging into State Testing Data for Grades 4-8
This activity provides a global picture of how students are doing in general and identifies specific areas that need
improvement. The data will be used to guide collaborative team actions leading to increased student achievement.
Publication Date: April 2018
Publisher: Arizona Department of Education, Exceptional Student Services

ESSentials LogoESSentials: Explicit Instruction
This comprehensive resource offers guidance to special and general education teachers for using techniques of explicit instruction based on the book, Explicit Instruction: Effective and Efficient Teaching. Included are two video demonstrations of Anita Archer working with students at an Arizona middle school.
Authors: Anita Archer and Charles Hughes
Publication Date: April 2015
Publisher: Arizona Department of Education, Exceptional Student Services

ESSentials LogoESSentials: Interventions and Enrichment
This resource demonstrates how Arizonaís Mesquite Elementary gives students the additional time they need to master core concepts and elevate their learning to the next level.
Publication Date: June 2015
Publisher: Arizona Department of Education, Exceptional Student Services

ESSentials LogoESSentials: Positive School Culture/Climate
This resource explains the benefits of developing a positive school culture, includes National School Culture Standards, and features a demonstration video from Arizonaís Villa Montessori Charter School.
Publication Date: May 2015
Publisher: Arizona Department of Education, Exceptional Student Services

ESSentials LogoESSentials: Sharing Data to Create Stronger Parent Partnerships
This resource explains how Humboldt Elementary shares student reading data with parents so they understand it and can better work with the school to increase reading achievement.
Publication Date: June 2015
Publisher: Arizona Department of Education, Exceptional Student Services

ESSentials LogoESSentials: Student-Driven Differentiated Instruction
This resource explains how to create blocks of time to provide intervention and enrichment for all students. See how the staff of Humboldt Elementary collaborates to support the needs of all students in grades 4-6.
Publication Date: June 2015
Publisher: Arizona Department of Education, Exceptional Student Services

Forward Together: A School Leaderís Guide to Creating Inclusive Schools
This guide is organized around three pillars of practice for creating inclusive schools: establishing common beliefs, creating an inclusive culture, and implementing effective instructional practices. These pillars help schools build confident and successful learners who can meet challenges and capitalize on opportunities in college and in the workplace. 
Authors: Lindsay DeHartchuck, Lindsay Kruse, and Meghan Whittaker
Publication Date: December 2019
Publisher: National Center for Learning Disabilities

Frequently Asked Questions About Inclusive Education
This document answers questions regarding inclusive practices in education.
Publication Date: 2015
Publisher: Stetson & Associates, Inc.

From Good to Great: Exemplary Teachers Share Perspectives on Increasing Teacher Effectiveness Across the Career Continuum
This study defined the teacher career continuum as: Preservice, Novice, Career, and Teacher Leader stages. For each stage, it describes the professional experiences and supports that the National and State Teachers of the Year viewed as increasing teacher effectiveness as they progressed through the stages of their career.
Authors: Ellen Behrstock-Sherratt, Katherine Bassett, Derek Olson, and Catherine Jacques 
Publication Date: April 2014
Publisher: American Institutes for Research

Funding Digital Learning
This resource offers support for districts updating technology resources through innovative planning and managing funds. It includes information about funds available under ESEA and IDEA that can support the transition to digital learning, including devices, connectivity, and professional development.
Publisher: U.S. Department of Educational Technology

General Education and Special Education Teachers Collaborate to Support English Language Learners
with Learning Disabilities

This article suggests collaboration between general and special education teachers and other specialists to work together to provide appropriate learning experiences and research-based strategies for ELLs with LD. 
Author: Huong Tran Nguyen
Publication Date: Spring 2012
Publishers: Issues in Teacher Education

Getting Ready to Implement Intensive Intervention: Infrastructure for Data-Based Individualization 
This module introduces the infrastructure needed to implement data-based individualization (DBI). The module includes presentation slides with integrated activities and handouts to help teams determine their readiness and develop an action plan for implementation. 
Publisher: National Center on Intensive Intervention

Great Principals at Scale: Creating District Conditions That Enable All Principals to Be Effective
This report provides support for districts to facilitate effective school leadership requiring a climate of shared ownership, trust, and mutual accountability in which central office and school-level leaders see one another as partners in meeting studentsí needs. 
Authors: Gina Ikemoto, Lori Taliaferro, Benjamin Fenton, and Jacquelyn Davis
Publication Date: June 2014
Publisher: The Bush Institute and New Leaders

High-Leverage Practices and Evidence-Based Practices: A Promising Pair
High-leverage practices (HLPs) and evidence-based practices (EBPs) when used together can become powerful tools for improving student outcomes. This brief is designed to show the promise of these practices in advancing educator preparation and practice and, subsequently, outcomes for students with disabilities and those who struggle.
Authors: Erica D. McCray, Margaret Kamman, Mary T. Brownell, and Suzanne Robinson
Publication Date: October 2017
Publisher: CEEDAR Center

High-Quality Curricula and Team-Based Professional Learning: A Perfect Partnership for Equity
Three real-world examples illustrate how schools and school systems are working to support teachers to skillfully use high-quality, standards-aligned curricula, by providing teachers with the time and expertise to use those curricula well, with a focus on team-based, collaborative learning. 
Publication Date: 2018
Publisher: Learning Forward

High Quality Mentoring & Instructional Coaching Practices
This resource is for education leaders seeking to create and/or improve programs with practices that support teacher retention, teacher development, and improved student learning.
Publication Date: 2016
Publisher: New Teacher Center

How Family, School, and Community Engagement Can Improve Student Achievement and Influence School Reform
This literature review examines how family and community partnerships can promote school improvement efforts. Key components of promising family-school partnerships that support school and district level reform are identified.
Authors: Lacy Wood and Emily Bauman 
Contributors: Zena Rudo and Vicki Dimock
Publication Date: February 2017
Publisher: American Institutes for Research

How Leadership Influences Student Learning
This research review discusses how leadership is second only to teaching among school-related factors in its impact on student learning.
Authors: Kenneth Leithwood, Karen Seashore Louis, Stephen Anderson and Kyla Wahlstrom 
Publication Date: 2004
Publishers: University of Minnesota, University of Toronto, and Wallace Foundation

How to Sell SEL: Parents and the Politics of Social-Emotional Learning
To better understand parentsí take on SEL and to explore possible pitfalls in communicating with them about SEL and its place in schools, this nationally representative poll of 2,000 parents of children in grades KĖ12 was commissioned. The results can help educators and policymakers gain parental support for their efforts.
Authors: Amber M. Northern and Michael J. Petrilli
Publication Date: August 2021
Publisher: The Thomas B. Fordham Institute

Implementation Drivers: Assessing Best Practices
This newly revised assessment tool can be used by Implementation Teams during any Implementation Stage of an innovation to rate implementation supports currently in place.
Authors: Dean L. Fixsen, Karen A. Blase, Sandra F. Naoom, and Michelle A. Duda
Publication Date: Jabuary 2015
Publisher: FPG Child Development Institute

Implementation Guide for Effective Coaching of Teachers
The purpose of this guide is to help practitioners systematically implement effective coaching practices.
Drawing on principles from Implementation Science, this guide outlines key questions to consider when using coaching as a pathway toward improving teaching and learning. The guide specifies actions that should be taken to appropriately structure the system in which coaching occurs.
Publication Date: June 2016
Publisher: National Center for Systemic Improvement

Improving Literacy Instruction in Middle and High Schools: A Guide for Principals
This guide is based on scientific research of reading instruction, studies of successful schools, and interviews with successful principals.
Author: Joseph Torgesen, Debra Houston, and Lila Rissman
Publication Date: 2007
Publisher: Center on Instruction, RMC Research Corporation

Improving Outcomes for All Students: Strategies and Considerations to Increase Student Diversity 
This brief provides information to support school districts seeking to improve student diversity in their schools through voluntary, community-led programs as part of an overall effort to increase equity and excellence for all students.
Publication Date: January 2017
Publisher: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Elementary and Secondary Education

Inclusion Needs Assessment
This needs assessment provides school leadership with the direction of what professional development to provide the school staff in order to support successful inclusion of students with disabilities within the school.
Publication Date: 2006
Publisher: William & Mary School of Education

Increasing the Effectiveness of Literacy Coaches
Literacy coaches provide teachers from all content areas with the support and professional development they need to deliver high-quality literacy instruction to all students. This article examines how education leaders can help literacy coaches have the greatest impact at their schools.
Authors: Ramona Chauvin and Kathleen Theodore
Publication Date: 2013
Publisher: Southwest Education Development Laboratory, American Institutes for Research

Inspired Instructional Coaching
This article explains how inspiring purpose, adopting instructional change, and sustaining energy for learning through coaching creates positive energy and professional renewal that revitalizes and benefits school culture in a lasting way.
Author: Sandra A. Trach
Publication Date: November/December 2014
Publisher: National Association of Elementary School Principals

Instructional Coaching
This brief offers guidance on how school leaders can tailor the most promising coaching strategies to the needs of their schools.
Authors: Lucy Steiner and Julie Kowal
Publication Date: September 2007
Publisher: The Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement

Intensive Reading Interventions for Struggling Readers in Early Elementary School: A Principalís Guide
This guide provides information critical to developing and implementing an effective school-level intervention program.
Publication Date: 2006
Publisher: Center on Instruction, RMC Research Corporation  

Interest Matters: The Importance of Promoting Interest in Education
This research manuscript describes four interest-enhancing interventions: attention-getting settings, contexts evoking prior individual interest, problem-based learning, and enhancing utility value. It includes the science behind the interventions and policies that put student interest at front of the class
Authors: Harackiewicz, Smith, and Priniski
Publication Date: October 2016
Publisher: Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences

Investigating the Links to Improved Student Learning: Final Report of Research Findings
This study identifies how successful educational leadership can improve educational practices and student learning. 
Authors: Karen Seashore Louis, Kenneth Leithwood, Kyla Wahlstrom, and Stephen Anderson 
Publication Date: July 2010 
Publishers: University of Minnesota, University of Toronto, and the Wallace Foundation

Job-Embedded Professional Development: What It Is, Who Is Responsible, and How to Get It Done Well
This brief explicitly defines job-embedded professional development and answers questions with a focus on job-embedded professional development for teachers. 
Authors: Andrew Croft, Jane G. Coggshall, Megan Dolan, Elizabeth Powers with Joellen Killion 
Publication Date: April 2010
Publisher: National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality

Leadership for Equity
This article discusses how administrators must intentionally adjust the level of support to meet the most student needs in order to achieve true equity.
Authors: Rhonda Barton and Rob Larson
Publication Date: March 2012
Publisher: National Association of Secondary School Principals

Leadership for Learning Improvement in Urban School
This University of Washington report examines the results of a national study of urban school leadersí work. The findings suggest several ways of thinking about and exercising learning focused leadership in these schools that may help to explain why they are doing well, and how others could do so. 
Authors: Bradley S. Portin, Michael S. Knaff, Scott Dareff, Sue Feldman, Felice A. Russell, Catherine Samuelson, and Theresa Ling Yeh
Publisher: Wallace Foundation

Leadership Matters: What the Research Says About the Importance of Principal Leadership
This document compiles the research on the behaviors and priorities of effective principals and the measured impact of principal leadership on student learning. 
Publication Date: 2013
Publisher: National Association of Elementary School Principals

Learning Strategies as a Key to Student Success
This research report discusses how principals can help ensure that students receive the necessary instruction by educating teachers about the importance of learning strategies, especially for struggling students. In addition, they can work with their teachers to develop a schoolwide approach that provides ongoing and explicit instruction in the use of key strategies.
Authors: Nancy Protheroe and Suzanne Clarke
Publication Date: 2008
Publisher: National Association of Elementary School Principals

Learning Centered Leadership: A Conceptual Foundation
This analysis describes the research base that undergirds the emerging concept of learning-centered leadership. It includes a definition of leadership, observations about the importance of leadership, a model of school leadership, and a detailed review of the literature on leadership for learning. 
Authors: Joseph Murphy, Stephen N. Elliott, Ellen Goldring, and Andrew C. Porter
Publication Date: August 2006
Publisher: Wallace Foundation

New Roles for Principals in Supporting Novice Special Education Teachers
The information in this document is organized around common ways that principals should provide support to novice teachers.
Publication Date: 2010
Publisher: National Center to Inform Policy and Practice in Special Education Professional Development

Organizing Family and Community Connections With Schools: How Do School Staff Build Meaningful Relationships With All Stakeholders?
This article discusses how school leaders need to provide parents with the tools and strategies necessary to develop purposeful relationships between family members and school staff.
Author: Chris Ferguson
Publication Date: August 2005
Publisher: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory

Parental Involvement in Middle School: A Meta-Analytic Assessment of the Strategies That Promote Achievement
This meta-analysis addresses the strength of the relation between parental involvement in education and achievement during middle school and the types of involvement that have the strongest positive relation with achievement.
Authors: Nancy E. Hill and Diana F. Tyson
Publication Date: 2009
Publisher: American Psychological Association

Practice Profile for Coaching
This document provides seven research-based components of effective coaching to transfer implementation of trained skills or practices with fidelity across contexts. Examples for levels of implementation are given for expected, developmental, and unacceptable use in practice.
Authors: Dale Cusumano and Angela Preston
Publication Date: 2018
Publisher: National implementation Research Network

Practice What You Teach: Connecting Curriculum & Professional Learning in Schools
This paper describes the research supporting improvement of teaching and advancement of student learning requires weaving together the curriculum that students engage with every day with the professional learning of teachers. It provides key takeaways for state, district, and school leaders.
Authors: Ross Wiener and Susan Pimentel
Publication Date: April 2017
Publisher: Aspen Institute 

Preparing School Leaders for Every Studentís Learning
This document provides an overview of the leadership needed to support the learning of all students, a description of leadership roles that appear critical for all students to successfully learn, and reviews evidence on how program structures and strategies influence preparation outcomes.
Authors: G. Thomas Bellamy, Jean B. Crockett, and Chase Nordengren 
Publication Date: September 2014
Publisher: Collaboration for Effective Educator, Development, Accountability, and Reform Center 

Principal as Instructional Leader: Designing a Coaching Program That Fits
This brief discusses how to select a coaching approach that meets the particular needs of a school and how to implement and sustain the effort.
Author: Lucy Steiner and Julie Kowal
Publication Date: 2007
Publisher: Reading Rockets

Principal Assessment: Leadership Behaviors Known to Influence Schools and the Learning of All Students
This paper examines research and practices that pertain to all principals who, in turn, influence teachers and all students within their schools. It focuses on the assessment of school principals so that the information can be used for evaluation and further professional development to promote leadership behaviors.†
Authors: Steven N. Elliott and Matthew Clifford
Publication Date: September 2014
Publisher: Collaboration for Effective Educator, Development, Accountability, and Reform Center

Principal Leadership: Moving toward Inclusive and High-achieving Schools for Students with Disabilities
This paper synthesizes research from both the general and special education leadership literature to identify critical research findings about effective practices and their implications for practice in supporting students with disabilities. An innovation configuration matrix is included for rating levels of implementation.
Authors: Bonnie S. Billingsley, James McLeskey, and Jean B. Crockett
Publication Date: June 2017 Revised
Publisher: University of Florida, Collaboration for Effective Educator, Development, Accountability, and Reform Center

Principals and Special Education: The Critical Role of School Leaders
This paper examines key leadership issues related to effective special education and reviews emerging standards for principal performance to determine the knowledge and skills that effective school leaders need.
Author: Michael F. DiPaola and Chriss Walther-Thomas
Publication Date: February 2003
Publisher: Center on Personnel Studies in Special Education

Principals Make a Difference: Recommendations for Strengthening Special Education Teacher Induction
Find out what principals can do to help novice special education teachers thrive.
Publication Date: 2010
National Center to Inform Policy and Practice in Special Education Professional Development  

Professional Learning and Professional Development in the Middle Grades
This review will highlight theory and research findings outlining quality professional development and the relationship between these research findings and tenets of middle level education.
Author: Dana L. Bickmore
Publication Date: October 2014
Publisher: Association for Middle Level Education

Professional Learning Communities: A Promising Practice for Integrating Novice Special Education Teachers into the School Culture
This brief discusses how effective principals can create a school culture that supports shared leadership and collaboration between veteran and novice teachers.
Publisher: National Center to Inform Policy and Practice in Special Education Professional Development  

Professional Learning for Culturally Responsive Teaching
This practitioner brief presents six research-based principles to guide professional learning experiences that foster culturally responsive teaching and four key arenas that have been at the forefront of teacher learning research.
Authors: Kathleen A. King, Alfredo J. Artiles, and Elizabeth B. Kozleski
Publication Date: July 2009
Publisher: Arizona State University

Professional Standards for Educational Leaders 2015
The 2015 Standards (formerly known as ISLLC Standards) have been recast with a stronger, clearer emphasis on students and student learning, outlining foundational principles of leadership to help ensure that each child is well-educated and prepared for the 21st century. They elevate areas of educational leader work that were once not well understood or deemed less relevant but have since been shown to contribute to student learning.
Publication Date: Updated November 2017
Publisher: National Policy Board for Educational Administration

PSEL 2015 and Promoting Principal Leadership for the Success of Students with Disabilities
This document provides guidance on how the Professional Standards for Educational Leaders 2015 can be applied to support inclusive principal leadership for the success of students with disabilities and highlights key competencies toward that end. 
Publication Date: 2017
Publisher: Council of Chief State School Officers

Reimagining the Role of Technology in Education: 2017 National Education Technology Plan Update
The National Education Technology Plan sets a national vision and plan for learning enabled by technology. The principles and examples provided in this document align to the Activities to Support the Effective Use of Technology (Title IV) Part A of the ESEA, as amended by ESSA.
Publication Date: January 2017
Publisher: U.S. Department of Education

Removing Barriers to Effective Distance Learning by Applying the High-Leverage Practices: Tips and Tools
This brief outlines how high leverage practices can be employed to strengthen distance learning instruction for a diverse range of students by providing strategies to address common challenges students experience. It is designed to support all teachers who are striving to ensure students of all backgrounds and abilities are provided equitable access to high-quality instruction in distance learning environments.
Authors: Debra Herburger, Lynn Holdheide, and Donna Sacco
Publication Date: Seprember 2020
Publishers: CEEDAR Center and NCSI

Rethinking Leadership: The Changing Role of Principal Supervisors
This report provides a summary of findings from a study of the ways principal supervisors are selected, supported, and evaluated in major school districts across the country. Recommendations for building more effective principal supervisory systems are included.
Authors: Amanda Corcoran, Michael Casserly, Ricki Price-Baugh, Denise Walston, Robin Hall, and Candace Simon
Publication Date: October 2013
Publisher: Wallace Foundation

Review of Research: How Leadership Influences Student Learning
This report supports the finding that leadership not only matters, but it is second only to teaching among school-related factors in its impact on student learning. 
Authors: Karen Seashore Louis, Kenneth Leithwood, Kyla Wahlstrom, and Stephen Anderson†
Publication Date: 2004†
Publishers: University of Minnesota, University of Toronto, and the Wallace Foundation

School Climate and Inclusion
This practice brief outlines school climate reform, an evidence-based strategy for K-12 school communities to promote supportive and engaging school environments. 
Authors: Clement Coulston and Kaitlyn Smith
Publication Date: February 2013
Publisher: National School Climate Center

School Climate and Shared Leadership
This brief explains shared leadership and offers five strategies that lead to and sustain shared leadership in schools and addresses some of the challenges school leaders, teachers, students, and school community members may experience while co-creating positive school climates.
Authors: William Hughes and Terry Pickeral
Publication Date: February 2013
Publishers: National School Climate Center

School Practices and Accountability for Students With Disabilities
This report illustrates the findings of a study comparing school practices and accountability for students with disabilities. Among the findings, always accountable schools favored co-teaching, tiered instructional intervention, PBIS, and adopting reading across the curriculum.
Authors: Jenifer Harr-Robins, Mengli Song, Michael Garet, and Louis Danielson
Publication Date: February 2015
Publisher: Institute of Education Sciences

Selecting Evidence-Based Practices for Low-Performing Schools
This guide walks leaders through the Evidence-Based Practices (EBP) selection process by offering three actions to integrate ESSA requirements and best practices that ensure selection of the most appropriate EBPs and bridge the gap between research and practice meaningfully and sustainably.
Authors: Alicia Garcia and Elisabeth Davis
Publication Date: April 2019
Publisher: American Institutes for Research

Special Education Start-Up and Implementation Tools for Charter School Leaders and Special Education Managers
This comprehensive guide includes each special education component and ways to support school staff in meeting the needs of all students.
Authors: Beth Giovannetti and Nancy Opalack
Publication Date: 2012
Publisher: National Charter School Resource Center, American Institutes for Research

Standards for Middle and High School Literacy Coaches
The coaching standards are organized into leadership standards and content area literacy standards. The leadership standards apply to literacy coaches without regard to the content area in which they are assisting teachers. The content area literacy standards apply to the demands literacy coaches face when assisting in a specific content area such as English language arts, mathematics, science, or social studies.
Publication Date: 2006
Publisher: International Reading Association

Strengthening Student Engagement
This white paper explains how all members of the school community can join forces to develop school-wide practices that cultivate high levels of student engagement. 
Author: Richard D. Jones 
Publication Date: 2008 
Publisher: International Center for Leadership in Education

Strong Teams, Strong School
This article discusses how effective teams strengthen leadership, improve teaching and learning, nurture relationships, increase job satisfaction, and provide a means for mentoring and supporting new teachers and administrators.
Author: Dennis Sparks
Publication Date: April 2013
Publisher: Learning Forward

Students with Special Needs, Reading Education, and Principals: Bridging the Divide through
Instructional Leadership

This study discusses teaching reading to special needs students in self-contained and inclusion settings at the secondary level and how school leaders can more effectively facilitate special education reading programs.
Authors: Karen Sanzo, Jennifer Clayton, and Whitney Sherman
Publication Date: March 2011
Publishers: International Journal of Educational Leadership Preparation

Teacher - Coach Relationships
This article, an excerpt from Coaching Matters, discusses how effective coaching relationships depend on teachers and coaches trusting one another, respecting each other professionally, committing to keeping their partnership agreements, and clearly defining the work they will do together.
Authors: Joellen Killion, Cindy Harrison, Chris Bryan, and Heather Clifton
Publication Date: Summer 2014
Publisher: Learning Matters

Teacher and Students' Perceptions of a Modified Inclusion Classroom Environment
This study examines how modifying one fourth grade inclusion classroom impacted teacher and studentsí perceptions of their learning environment.
Authors: Elizabeth Kirby Fullerton and Caroline Guardino
Publication Date: Winter 2010
Publisher: Electronic Journal for Inclusive Education

Teacher Collaboration In Perspective: A Guide to Research
This research guide synthesizes research on teacher collaboration and how creating conditions for teachers to work more collaboratively might benefit students and teachers in their schools and districts. 
Publication Date: 2017
Publishers: Spencer Foundation and Public Agenda

Teacher Collaboration In Perspective: Critical Questions for Superintendents and School Board Members
This discussion guide provides questions superintendents and school board members can use to begin to understand how teachers currently work in their districts and to think critically about how to make teachersí work more collaborative. 
Publication Date: 2017
Publisher: Spencer Foundation and Public Agenda

Teacher Development Research Review: Keys to Educator Success
This article explains some of the best practices found by researchers to help ensure educator growth and success that includes job-embedded professional development with collaborative learning.
Author: Vanessa Vega
Publication Date: January 2013
Publisher: Edutopia: What Works in Education

Teacher Digital Learning Guide
This guide provides key considerations, guiding strategies, resources, and reflection questions to help guide your digital learning in a way that will be specific to your unique situation and the unique needs of your students.
Publication Date: January 2021
Publisher: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Technology

The Challenges of Inclusion and Collaboration: Understanding the Needs of Novice Special Education Teachers
Find out how administrators can help novice special education teachers address the challenges they face with inclusion, collaboration, and interactions with other adults.
Publication Date: 2010
National Center to Inform Policy and Practice in Special Education Professional Development

The Content Literacy Continuum: A Framework for Improving Adolescent Literacy
This article describes the Content Literacy Continuum, a tool for enabling teachers and administrators to evaluate literacy instruction/services offered within a school and to formulate a plan for improving the quality of those services.
Authors: Keith Lenz and Donald D. Deshler

The Effect of Teacher Coaching on Instruction and Achievement: A Meta-Analysis of the Causal Evidence
This is a review of the empirical literature on teacher coaching and a meta-analyses to estimate the mean effect of coaching programs on teachersí instructional practice and studentsí academic achievement. 
Authors: Matthew A. Kraft, David Blazar, and Dylan Hogan
Publication Date: 2018
Publisher: Review of Educational Research

The Effective Principal
Research indicates that five practices of principals, including shaping a school vision and helping teachers improve instruction, are key to effective school leadership.†
Author: Pamela Mendels
Publication Date: April 2012
Publisher: Learning Forward

The Five Dimensions of Differentiation
This article focuses on differentiation and the ways that teachers can meet the academic needs of all of their students. It includes challenges and solutions about how differentiation can be implemented with a variety of strategies that can be used to differentiate, challenge, and engage all students.
Authors: Sally M. Reis and Joseph S. Renzulli
Publication Date: 2015
Publisher: Gifted Education Press Quarterly

The Four Domains for Rapid School Improvement: A Systems Framework 
The aim of this paper is to describe how to use the four improvement domains of harnessing turnaround leadership, facilitating talent development, fostering instructional transformation, and enabling a culture shift. 
Authors: Kathleen Ryan Jackson, Dean Fixsen, and Caryn Ward 
Publication Date: February 2018
Publisher: National Implementation Research Network University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

The Impact of Coaching on Teacher Practice and Student Achievement
This article is a research review about teacher coaching strategies and programs offering a clear, thoughtful analysis that details the impact of coaching on teacher practice and student achievement. 
Author: Elizabeth Foster
Publication Date: August 2018
Publisher: Learning Forward

The Impact of Explicit, Self-Regulatory Reading Comprehension Strategy Instruction on the Reading-Specific Self-Efficacy, Attributions, and Affect of Students with Reading Disabilities
This study discusses how students in grades 4-8 receiving the explicit, self-regulatory strategy intervention showed greater gains than participants receiving the less explicit intervention.
Authors: Jason M. Nelson and Genevieve Manset-Williamson
Publication Date: Summer 2006
Publishers: Learning Disability Quarterly

The Principal Role in Data Driven Decision Making: Using Case Study Data to Develop Multi-mediator Models of Educational Reform
This article discusses illuminating the role of the principal as an agent in the Data-Driven Decision Making reform process by using qualitative data and developing multi-mediator simulation models.
Authors: James A. Levin and Amanda Datnow
Publication Date: 2012
Publisher: Northwestern University

The Principalís Role in Successful Schools: Creating a Positive School Culture
This article discusses how principals in three high-achieving schools created positive school cultures that focused on creating a sense of belonging for teachers, students, and parents, and providing clear direction.
Author: Shelly Habegger
Publication Date: 2008
Publisher: National Association of Elementary School Principals

The Principal's Role in the Instructional Process: Implications for At-Risk Students
This article examines the characteristics at schools where at-risk students are making academic gains because effective principals do for teachers what effective teachers do for students.
Publication Date: 1991
Publisher: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory  

The Role of Principals in Addressing Teacher Shortages
This brief summarizes research on the important role that school leaders can play in reducing the steady churn of teachers that can worsen shortages and undermine studentsí educational opportunities.
Publication Date: February 2017
Publisher: Learning Policy Institute

The School Principal as Leader: Guiding Schools to Better Teaching and Learning
This report identifies five key actions that effective school principals do well, that include shaping a vision of academic success for all students and cultivating leadership in others. 
Publication Date: January 2013
Publisher: The Wallace Foundation

The State of Learning Disabilities: Facts, Trends and Emerging Issues
This revised edition provides an overview of what learning disabilities are, the impact of disabilities during school-age years, and transition from school to postsecondary educational settings and the workplace.
Authors: Candace Cortiella and Sheldon H. Horowitz
Publication Date: 2014
Publisher: National Center for Learning Disabilities

The Three Essentials: Improving Schools Requires District Vision, District and State Support, and Principal Leadership
This study examines the role of the district office in providing principals with the working conditions they need to improve teacher effectiveness and student performance in the middle grades and high school.
Authors: Gene Bottoms and Jon Schmidt-Davis
Publication Date: August 2010
Publisher: Southern Regional Education Board

Top Priority: Teacher Learning
This article discusses how meaningful professional learning and improved teaching follow when collaboration is embedded in teachersí work and supported by leadership.
Authors: Julia Kassissieh and Rhonda Barton
Publication Date: March 2009
Publisher: National Association of Secondary School Principals

Transforming Middle Schools: Guide to Collaborative Culture and Shared Leadership
This guide includes detailed explanations for developing a collaborative culture and for creating shared leadership, decision making, and effective teacher teams. Included are tools, protocols, and exercises that can be used to develop a collaborative culture and shared leadership.
Publication Date: 2001
Publisher: National Turning Points Center for Collaborative Education

Triage for Struggling Adolescent Readers
This article explains a model for teaching reading that includes intensive care units for the most at-risk students, specialized care for those moderately at-risk, and excellent core instruction for capable readers. 
Authors: Linda J. Diamond
Publisher: AASA, The School Superintendents Association

Turning Around Chronically Low-Performing Schools
This guide identifies practices that can improve the performance of chronically low-performing schools and help failing schools make adequate yearly progress. 
Author: Rebecca Herman, Priscilla Dawson, Thomas Dee, Jay Greene, Rebecca Maynard, Sam Redding, and Marlene Darwin 
Publication Date: 2008 
Publisher: Institute of Education Sciences

Use of Education Data at the Local Level From Accountability to Instructional Improvement
This report describes the types of data available to school staff, how school staff use electronic data systems, school practices with respect to data-driven decision making, and the supports and challenges for school use of student data in planning and implementing instruction. 
Authors: Barbara Means, Christine Padilla, and Larry Gallagher
Publication Date: January 2010
Publisher: SRI International

Using Data to Improve Schools: Whatís Working
This is an easy-to-read guide to using data to drive school improvement in large and small districts. School system leaders and their staffs can learn how to build a districtwide culture of inquiry that values the use of data for sound decision-making.
Publisher: American Association of School Administrators

Using Student Achievement Data to Support Instructional Decision Making
This guide offers recommendations to help educators effectively use data to monitor studentsí academic progress and evaluate instructional practices. It also recommends teaching students how to use their own data to set learning goals.
Authors: Laura Hamilton, Richard Halverson, Sharnell S. Jackson, Ellen Mandinach, Jonathan A. Supovitz, and Jeffrey C. Wayman
Publication Date: September 2009
Publisher: Institute of Education Sciences

Vertical Alignment: Ensuring Opportunity to Learn in a Standards-Based System
This brief explains vertical alignment and explores some of the issues that districts may face when implementing vertical alignment of the written curriculum across grade levels.
Publication Date: August 2009
Publisher: The Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement

What Content-Area Teachers Should Know About Adolescent Literacy
This report describes the five key components that are critical to the development of reading proficiency and the four other areas that are fundamental in helping adolescents achieve advanced levels of literacy: assessment, writing, motivation, and the needs of diverse learners.
Publication Date: 2007
Publisher: National Institute for Literacy

What Every Teacher Needs to Know to Teach Native American Students
This article discusses the culture and learning styles of Native American students and offers educational practices that will likely aid this group of students to work to their potential.
Author: Hani Morgan
Publication Date: 2009
Publisher: Institute of Education Sciences

What Teachers Wish Administrators Knew About Co-Teaching in High Schools
This article presents the results of individual and focus group interviews with the co-teaching partner teachers comprised of general and special educators. In particular, the analysis reveals the teachersí perceptions regarding what principals need to know and understand to support co-teaching in their schools.
Authors: Geraldine M Nierengarten and Trudie Hughes
Publication Date: Spring 2010
Publisher: Electronic Journal for Inclusive Education

What the Research Says About Class Size, Professional Development, and Recruitment, Induction, and Retention of Highly Qualified Teachers
This collection of research briefs looks at which strategies are most effective, given organizational and structural constraints, and is intended to help inform states and districts as they plan their Title II, Part A, fund designations.
Author: Basha Krasnoff
Publication Date: 2014
Publisher: Education Northwest

When Teachers Believe, Students Achieve
This article discusses why collective efficacy is important, how collaborative teacher inquiry can enhance collective efficacy, and how school leaders can support educatorsí engagement in the process.
Authors: Jenni Donohoo and Steven Katz 
Publication Date: December 2017
Publisher: Learning Forward

Why Coaching?
This article defines what a literacy coach is. It discusses the value of literacy coaching and how literacy coaches differ from reading specialists and mentors. 
Author: Cathy A. Toll
Publication Date: 2014
Publisher: International Reading Association