Learning Disability (LD)

To find information on specific learning disabilities, please click on the topics below:

Accommodations for Students with LD
This article explains accommodations as alterations in the way tasks are presented that allow children with learning disabilities to complete the same assignments as other students and gives examples.
Author: National Center for Learning Disabilities
Publication Date: 2006
Publisher: LD OnLine, National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities

Accommodations, Techniques and Aids For Learning
This article includes some suggested ways to aid students with specific learning disabilities (SLD) learn more effectively at home or at school.
Publisher: Learning Disabilities Association of America

Agents of Their Own Success: Self-Advocacy Skills and Self-Determination for Students With Disabilities in the Era of Personalized Learning
This document explains three policy and action themes developed to ensure that self-advocacy skills and self-determination are woven into learning for all students and supported by a full range of engaged stakeholders.
Publication Date: March 2018
Publisher: National Center for Learning Disabilities

Assistive Technology Short Term Loan Library
A wide variety of assistive technology devices, equipment, software and professional development materials are available free of charge to Arizona school personnel.
Publisher: Arizona Department of Education

Confronting the Puzzle of Nonverbal Learning Disabilities
This article discusses classroom challenges of students with nonverbal learning disabilities, understanding the symptoms, and targeted interventions that can improve the outlook for students and educators.
Author: Dorothy M. Vacca
Publication Date: November 2001
Publisher: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development

Does Inclusion Help Students: Perspectives from Regular Education and Students with Disabilities
This article documents the results of research focused on verifying the impacts of inclusion on both students with disabilities and their regular education classmates.
Authors: Bonnie Dupuis, Joyce Barclay, Sherwin Holmes, Morgan Platt, Steven Shaha, and Valerie Lewis
Publisher: American Academy of Special Education Professionals

Enhancing and Practicing Executive Function Skills with Children from Infancy to Adolescence
This guide describes a variety of activities and games that represent age-appropriate ways for adults to support and strengthen various components of executive function and self-regulation in children.
Publication Date: 2014
Publisher: Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University

Executive Function Fact Sheet
This article defines executive function, explains how it affects learning and how problems with executive function are identified, and offers strategies to help students.
Publication Date: 2008
Publisher: National Center for Learning Disabilities

Executive Functions and Communication in Adolescents
This article summarizes key brain and cognitive development during adolescence, with a focus on the development of executive functions and how these functions are evaluated, and illustrate links between executive functions and communication disorders in two clinical populations.
Authors: Lyn S. Turkstra and Lindsey J. Byom
Publication Date: December 2010
Publisher: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association

Language-Based Learning Disability: What to Know
This article explains Language-Based Learning Disability and how to support students with LBLD by adjusting curriculum and instruction to ensure they develop proficient language and literacy skills.
Author: Patricia W. Newhall
Publication Date: 2012
Publisher: LD OnLine, National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities

Learning Disabilities (LD)
This fact sheet defines, describes its characteristics, offers tips for parents and teachers, and connects you with related information and organizations with special expertise in that disability.
Publisher: National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities

Learning Disabilities and Disorders
This article discusses the types of learning disabilities and learning disorders and their signs.
Authors: Gina Kemp, Melinda Smith, and Jeanne Segal
Publication Date: February 2013
Publisher: Helpguide.org 

Learning How to Learn: Successful Transition Models for Educators Working with Youth with Learning Disabilities
The aim of this brief is to provide teachers with background knowledge and skills so that they can integrate evidence-based practices into the classroom to aid learning for students with disabilities.
Publication Date: February 2012
Publisher: National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability for Youth

"Learning Disabilities" Movement Turns 50
This article explores the history of the movement and future directions.
Author: Jim Baucom
Publication Date: 2013
Publisher: LD OnLine, National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities

Nonverbal Learning Disabilities: An Overview
This article explains the difficulties of children with nonverbal learning disabilities. They have excellent verbal skills so they do well in elementary school which delays detection of the disability. Their academic problems come to light as school becomes more complex and implied learning replaces rote learning.
Publisher: Smart Kids with Learning Disabilities

Symptoms of Learning Disabilities
Learning disabilities are a generic set of disorders that have a wide array of behavioral manifestations. This article offers a sampling of these specific disorders and their symptoms.
Author: Rick Lavoie
Publication Date: 2018
Publishers: LD Online

The 10 Essentials to Keep in Mind When Working with Children with LD
This article describes how to effectively understand, manage, and control the behavior of children with learning disabilities through developing and subscribing to a philosophy that you trust and believe in fully. 
Author: Rick Lavoie
Publication Date: 2018
Publishers: LD Online

The State of Learning Disabilities: Facts, Trends and Emerging Issues
This revised edition provides an overview of what learning disabilities are, the impact of disabilities during school-age years, and transition from school to postsecondary educational settings and the workplace.
Authors: Candace Cortiella and Sheldon H. Horowitz
Publication Date: 2014
Publisher: National Center for Learning Disabilities

The Use of RTI to Identify Students With Learning Disabilities: A Review of the Research
This report presents the regularly stated criticisms of the current LD identification methods and reviews the latest research on the impact of RTI as a method for LD identification. 
Authors: Doug Dexter and Charles Hughes
Publication Date: January 2013
Publisher: National Center for Learning Disabilities

Twice Exceptional: Gifted Students with Learning Disabilities
This article provide educators with basic information for recognizing and understanding gifted students with learning disabilities (LD). Strategies are included to enhance instruction and interactions.
Publication date: Updated April 2014
Publisher: College of William and Mary School of Education

What Are Classrooms Like for Students with Learning Disabilities?
This article discusses how the general education classroom environment should be adapted to fit the individual characteristics of students with learning disabilities.
Author: Kate Garnett
Publication Date: 2010
Publisher: LD OnLine, National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities

What Are the Symptoms of Learning Disabilities?
This article discusses some common symptoms of learning disabilities and includes symptoms for dyslexia, dyscalculia, dyspraxia, and dysgraphia.
Publication Date: Updated November 2012
Publisher: National Institutes of Health

What Is Executive Functioning?
This article discusses the broad category of executive function and includes a list of specific characteristics based on research and compiled by psychologists.
Authors: Joyce Cooper-Kahn and Laurie Dietzel 
Publication Date: 2008
Publisher: LD OnLine